The happiest time for children is, of course, summer vacation! Textbooks are on the shelves, lessons and difficult tasks behind, and ahead of a carefree time, talking with friends and summer fun! And there is nothing better than to go to the beach in the hot summer season: sunbathe, play ball and swim in the river. But everything is so good only in words, it is no secret that water is a great danger to young children and adolescents. Most children often do not know how to swim and can drown even where not deep. That is why they can never be left unattended near ponds. Few of the children can hold their breath for a long time, and in shock situations they get scared, start to cry and open their mouth wide. As a result, the liquid enters the respiratory tract in a split second and the child is choked with water and dies.
Over the past week, the ambulance received 3 calls about drowning children. All cases ended in tragedy - the guys could not be saved.
Of course, it is impossible to leave minors alone near rivers and reservoirs. Remember that inflatable rings, life jackets and other products that, although designed to prevent disasters on the water, actually can not fully protect the child. They may tear and deflate, or the child may simply slip out of them.
In the event that an accident happened to the child, the outcome of such an incident depends, first of all, on the adult's first-aid skills in drowning.
How to understand that a child is drowning?
It is necessary to constantly pay attention to the pose and behavior of children in the water, when the child begins to sink, he often can not let him know that he is in trouble. Another sure sign that with children is not all right is their noise. Children never behave quietly on the water, and if they are quiet, then something is wrong. Signs of drowning children are similar to signs of a drowning adult:
- the child’s head is thrown back and his mouth is open,
- can swim face down
- trying to swim unsuccessfully, or simply put, "floundering in the water."
If you notice at least one of these signs, you should immediately come to the rescue and pull the child ashore as soon as possible. But first of all, ensure your own safety, since saving a drowning man is a very risky action for someone who is trying to be a lifeguard. An untrained person without risk for himself can help only in shallow water, in the children's pool, in a situation where you do not need to stay on the water yourself and swim somewhere. If you are not confident in your abilities - scream, call for help, but do not multiply the number of drowning people with your enthusiasm! When rescuing a child, use available means (ropes, sticks, rubber rings, etc.) and floating (boats, etc.) means if possible.
A child pulled out of the water may be conscious, unconscious, in a state of stupor or lethargy. Changes in the pulse are also observed: it can be quickened, slowed down or absent. The heart works intermittently, it may stop. Breathing, if any, is superficial. Often there is vomiting and cough with frothy sputum. The abdomen is swollen. The skin is pale, cold, with a bluish tint. After removing the victim from the water, you have only a few minutes for first aid to prevent the occurrence of irreversible changes in the organs and brain due to acute oxygen deficiency, since the brain is able to function only 5-6 minutes without oxygen. And if first aid is not provided on time, death occurs. Resuscitation measures consist of three successive stages: ensuring airway patency, artificial respiration and heart massage.
First aid for drowning a child has a clear standard algorithm of urgent actions that parents should know and including the following measures:
1) call for help, ask to call an ambulance,
2) check whether the child is conscious.
For this child, you need to lay him on his back, on any hard surface, call the child by name and shake his shoulders, in infants - carry out intensive patting movements on the heel. If the child does not respond to your actions, then he is unconscious.
3) check if the baby is breathing.
To do this, put one hand on the forehead of the child, place one finger of the other hand on the chin and tilt his head back a little. Lift your chin, put your ear to the baby’s mouth, watch his chest, and in this position no longer than 10 seconds, you should try to hear or feel the baby’s breathing, notice the movement of his chest.
4) start mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration if the baby is not breathing.
Artificial respiration should be like this: - slightly tilt the child’s head back and raise his chin, - hold the child’s nose with the hand that rests on the forehead, - open the child’s mouth while keeping the chin in the raised position, - hold your breath and wrap your lips around the child’s mouth, children up to 1 year, you should grasp both nose and mouth with your lips at the same time, - 1-1.5 seconds, blow into the child's mouth, observing whether his chest rises, - the volume of inhaled air should not be greater than that which you keep in your mouth , as Olsha volume of air can injure the baby's lungs, - holding his head thrown back and his chin raised, release the baby's mouth and make sure that the air comes out of his chest - repeat the entire process five times.
5) check the work of the heart of the child. To do this, try to feel the pulse on the carotid arteries on the side of the neck for a few seconds, or with an ear attached to the chest of the child, hear a heartbeat.
6) proceed with indirect heart massage, if there are no signs of a heartbeat.
Indirect heart massage: - kneel down in front of the child, - free your chest from clothes, - for older children: put the palm of one hand on the bottom of the sternum, and on top of the palm of the other hand, for younger children (1-5 years old): along the longitudinal axis of the sternum, lay the base of the right hand on the area where the ribs connect to the sternum - press on the body so that the rib cage descends three to four centimeters, as this provides the necessary stimulation of the heart, superficial pressing does not cause heart contractions, butexcessive pressure leads to injury - to carry out thirty rhythmic thrusts of the chest.
7) then follow the cycle - thirty receptions of indirect heart massage and two techniques of artificial respiration.
In one minute, it is necessary to carry out 100-120 pressures on the chest and 12-20 breaths, until the resumption of cardiac activity and breathing.
After each minute of resuscitation, feel for a pulse for several seconds. If there is no pulse, then cardiac massage and artificial respiration should be continued. If the pulse is groped, you need to check whether the child breathes independently. If the child does not breathe, continue artificial respiration, periodically checking the pulse and respiration. As soon as the child recovers pulse and breathing, activities are stopped, but the pulse and breathing are periodically checked before the arrival of an ambulance.
The child needs to be resuscitated for at least 40 minutes, especially after removing it from cold water, as the child’s body can survive up to 1 hour of clinical death in ice water without disturbances in the central nervous system. After the resumption of breathing and pulse, you need to lay the child on one side and warm.
Particularly noteworthy are children for whom a neck or spine injury may be suspected, which is often characteristic of children who jump head first into the water. When assisting such a child, a number of points should be taken into account: you should not move the child unnecessarily, you should not put rolled things under your head. The head, body and neck of the child should always be on the same plane, turning on their side, carried out by holding the head and neck so that the whole body turns over simultaneously. Otherwise, spinal injury can only be exacerbated.
If the injured child has: consciousness, breathing, coughing, limb movements, vomiting, or they appeared during relief:
• give the child the opportunity to take the most comfortable position for him, or lay him in a stable position on his side,
• do not leave the child and do not take your eyes off him: the condition may worsen and require assistance at any time,
• take off wet clothes,
• warm the child intensively - wrap in dry, warm clothes, blankets, if possible, bring the child to a warm room or lay near a fire, use heaters, fan heaters, etc.,
• if the child is conscious, able to sit, and there is no vomiting, you should give warm drinks in small sips - water, tea, compote, etc.
Inflatable rings, life jackets and other products that, although designed to prevent disasters on the water, in fact, cannot completely protect the child from drowning. They may burst and the air will deflate, or the child may simply slip out of them.
Remember the following rules:
• Teach children to swim.
• Those who know how to swim, learn to relax on the water.
• Use equipped beaches.
• Any movement of the child towards the water must be coordinated with adults.
• Children cannot swim without supervision, even if they can swim.
• Strongly forbid your child to dive if he does not know how to swim, or, without first checking the depth of the pond and the condition of the bottom.
• Do not allow children to swim far or swim across bodies of water.
• Never forbid jumping into water in unfamiliar places and from cliffs.
• A child who cannot swim cannot enter the water without an inflatable vest (circle, sleeves) and further than waist-high.
• There should be great care when bathing children with air mattresses, boats, circles.
• A child in a boat must wear a life jacket.
• Do not dive from boats, do not board and do not allow children to do so.
The main causes of childhood injuries
Accidents are the leading cause of child mortality. More than 16 percent of all hospitalizations resulting from accidental injuries among children result in their permanent incapacity. Although deaths from accidental injuries among children under the age of 14 have decreased by almost 40 percent in recent decades, accidental injuries remain the number one killer in this age group.
The main causes of death among children are road vehicles (28 percent), followed by drowning (16 percent) and airway obstruction (14 percent). Falls (36 percent) are the main cause of non-fatal childhood injuries. Other common causes of accidental injuries and deaths are fires and burns, accidental gunshot wounds and poisoning. Another danger to which children may be exposed is to become victims of crime. Child abductions are often widely publicized and cause parents to be very worried and fearful in this regard.
Another relatively new place where children face potential dangers is on the information network. The Internet opens up a world of possibilities, but there are people who can try to use and harm children with this technology.
The number of potential risks that children face may seem huge to parents, but there are many measures that can be taken to reduce them.
Injuries to children in car accidents
Car accidents result in 30–40 percent of accidental deaths among children. A third of them were directly related to the improper use of child seats. What measures will help parents protect their children?
Car seats must comply with safety standards. A car seat with a five-point seat belt provides the best protection. In addition, the car seat must be the correct size and must be correctly installed in the car. Some car seats require additional equipment for maximum protection. Car Kremlin must be installed correctly. The car seat should be pressed firmly against the rear seat of the vehicle. After installing the car seat, parents need to make sure the rigidity of the installation. The rear seats should not be located in the front seat of the car with airbags. Children under 12 years old must ride in the backseat so as not to suffer from inflating airbags in an emergency. As a rule, the back seat of the car is the safest place in the event of an accident. Children should never be left alone in or near a vehicle.
Child injury from drowning
Drowning remains the second leading cause of accidental deaths among children under 14 years of age. About 20 percent of drowning survivors suffer from severe disabilities. Children between the ages of one and four are at greatest risk of drowning. What measures can significantly reduce the risk of a child drowning?
Parents and caregivers should never, even for a moment, leave their children unattended in the bathroom, pool, spa or near any open water. If the house has a pool, it should be surrounded by a fence that prevents direct access to it. Parents should take their child to swimming lessons when he is already old enough for this (usually after four years), but remember that such activities do not provide protection against drowning of children of any age. Children should always swim with someone. In addition, they should explain that one should never dive into an unknown body of water. When boating, life vests must be worn. Children should not walk, ice-skate or ride with melting ice in any body of water.
Child injury due to poisoning
Poisoning is a common cause of home accidents, with young children being the most vulnerable. Children run the risk of being poisoned by household and personal hygiene products, medicines, vitamins, and indoor plants. A huge number of children of the younger age group are treated in emergency rooms as a result of accidental poisoning every year.
What can reduce the potential danger of child poisoning in the home? Medications and cleaning products must be stored in closed cabinets. Parents should avoid taking medicine in front of their children and never call tablets a candy. Tools such as windshield washer fluid, antifreeze and pesticides are toxic and should be placed where children cannot reach them. In addition, these products should never be stored in bottles of water or juice. Poisonous plants in the house must be identified and removed, or placed out of the reach of children. Carbon monoxide detectors should be located near each separate area of the house. Insect sprays should not be used near food. All furniture and toys should be tested for non-toxic coatings.
Fire and childhood injuries
Fire is the fifth leading cause of childhood deaths. Children aged four years and younger are most at risk, with mortality from fires and burns almost doubled in the total group of children. This happens for several reasons. Young children have a less acute perception of danger and a limited ability to properly respond to a life-threatening situation. They are also more susceptible to fire asphyxia, and are also more prone to burns than adults. What measures will help ensure the safety of children from fire?
Young children must be closely monitored. They can not be left even for short periods of time. Lighters and matches should be kept out of the reach of children. It will not be superfluous to make a plan in case of fire and practice it with the children. It is necessary to install smoke alarms at each level of the house and familiarize children with the sound of smoke alarms. You should check the alarm monthly and change the battery in it at least once a year. The presence of a working smoke alarm significantly increases the chances of residents to survive a fire. If possible, block the child’s access to the stove. Food is best cooked on the rear burners.
Child injuries due to falls
Every year, millions of children are injured as a result of falls. Those who are under five years old account for more than half of all such injuries. And even careful monitoring by parents does not always help here, since a fall can occur very quickly. Несчастные случаи могут происходить как дома, так и на улице, и хотя большинство падений приводит лишь к легким ударам и синякам, многие из них вызывают серьезные травмы, требующие немедленной медицинской помощи. Какие рекомендации могут помочь предотвратить детей от травм при падениях?
Игровые площадки должны иметь мягкие поверхности, такие как мульча из коры, мягкая древесная щепа, песок, измельченные шины. Avoid concrete, asphalt and dirt surfaces. Chairs and other furniture in the house should be away from windows. The latter should be closed and locked when children are nearby. Residential windows in tall buildings should have bars or window fencing. Rugs should be fixed to the floor with a rubber pad, double-sided tape or polyurethane foam. Protective gates can save the baby from falling from the stairs. Seat belts will prevent the child from falling out of the basket. As children get older and begin to ride bicycles or skates, they should always wear the right helmet. A correctly selected helmet sits evenly on the upper part of the head (low on the forehead, no more than two fingers above the eyebrows), it is comfortable and has fairly strong straps.
Childhood airway injuries
Children, especially those under the age of three, are prone to respiratory tract injuries. On average, infants account for approximately 64 percent of all cases of suffocation among children. Causes of suffocation or fatal airway obstruction include strangulation with pillows, food, or small items. Everything that children can put in rum can be dangerous. What steps will help protect children from suffocation?
Parents should not give children under four years old hard, smooth foods that could potentially block their airways. These include all nuts, sunflower seeds, watermelon with seeds, cherry pitted, popcorn, caramel, raw carrots, raw peas. Some soft foods, such as grapes and sausages, should be cut into small pieces. When children start eating solid foods, parents should beware of foods such as raw apples or pears. Children should sit still while eating and chew food thoroughly. They should not run, ride in a car or play sports with candy or candy in their mouths. Buttons, beads and other small items must be stored out of the reach of children. Parents should follow the recommendations of the toy manufacturers and check the latter for missing or broken parts.
Random gunshot childhood injuries
Accidental injuries associated with firearms are not the last among all accidents with children. A child at the age of three is already strong enough to pull the trigger. Studies show that at the age of eight, 90 percent of children are capable of firing a pistol. Regardless of whether people are weapon collectors or hunters, do they need to ensure the safety of their families by talking with their children about the potential dangers of weapons and what can be done to prevent an accidental shot?
Weapons must be stored discharged in a securely closed case and out of the reach of children. Use trigger locks and other security features. Ammunition should be stored in a separate place from the firearm, locked in a container inaccessible to children. Weapon owners must take special courses to find out the correct and safe way to use and store them. Children need to be explained that weapons are not a toy.
Online injury risks for children
While the Internet opens up a wide world of opportunities, it can also expose children to various dangers. Adolescents are especially at risk because they are more likely to go online unattended and more often than younger children engage in online discussions. What risks does the Internet carry and how to avoid its negative impact and dangers?
Exposure to inappropriate material that is sexual, violent or hateful. Exposure to information that could threaten the safety of children or the safety of other family members. In some cases, criminals use chats, email, and instant messaging to gain the trust of a child and then arrange a personal meeting. There are several signs that children may be at risk online. These include: a large amount of time spent by the child on the Internet, especially in the evenings, the presence of pornography on a computer, calls from strangers, receiving mail, gifts or packages from strangers, turning off or quickly changing the contents of the screen on the monitor when parents enter the room , leaving the family, using someone else’s online account. Children should be warned of potential dangers on the Internet and of sexual victimization.
Parents should spend time online with their children. The computer should be in the common room in the house, not in the child’s room. You must use parental control and / or block software. Parents must have access to the child’s online account and check their email. The child should be explained that you should never arrange a personal meeting with those they meet on the Internet, never send your photos to strangers, never give out identifying information such as your name, address, school name or phone number, never Upload photos from an unknown source, and never respond to unknown messages.
Crime injuries for children
Crimes related to abductions of children, although rare, scare many parents and make it difficult to understand how best to protect their child. How can you reduce the risk of kidnapping?
Parents should teach children to run away from danger, not to it. Danger is defined as anything or someone invading their personal space. Children should not be shy about shouting loudly at the same time, since safety is more important than politeness. Children should not walk alone; they should always be controlled directly by parents or other adults. Parents should always know where and with whom their child is. They need to know their child's friends and be aware of the places and houses that they can visit. Children should contact their parents when they come and leave their destination, and if their plans change. Parents should talk openly with their children about safety and encourage them to inform adults in case of danger. Children should know that they have the right to say “no” to the unwanted or strange attention of adults, and immediately inform their parents in case of suspicion. The nanny and guardians need to be checked carefully. Children should not talk and accept gifts or sweets from strangers.
The author of the article: Valery Viktorov, Moscow Medicine Portal ©
Denial of responsibility: The information presented in this article about how to protect a child from childhood injuries is intended only to inform the reader. It cannot be a substitute for consultation by a professional medical professional.
How to act
- The first step: check the presence of the basic functions of the body - breathing, heartbeat.
- The next stage of first aid for drowning a child: remove fluid from the respiratory tract. For this, the injured baby is placed on the bent leg of the lifeguard upside down. In this position, pressing on the back of the crumbs will allow the blower to move as quickly and completely as possible.
- The next stage of first aid for drowning: to clean the child’s mouth from sand and algae that have accumulated vomit when immersed in water.
- Then you need to immediately begin artificial ventilation of the lungs. The most effective artificial respiration technique is the mouth-to-mouth method.
When performing this event, children are laid on a horizontal surface in a lying position, throwing their head back strongly.
- After the restoration of respiratory function, actions are aimed at preventing hypothermia. It is necessary to remove wet items from the baby, rub the skin with a dry terry towel, put on warm, dry clothes, cover with a blanket.
- A small victim must be shown to a doctor to exclude the development of complications of an accident: pneumonia.
In the hot summer season, the best way to spend time is sunbathing and active fun on the beach, swimming in the sea or river. However, often swimming in non-bathing areas of the reservoir and insufficient control by the parents lead to the most tragic consequences: drowning a child. First aid in such a critical situation should be provided on an emergency basis and at a high professional level.
First aid for drowning a child has a similar algorithm of actions, regardless of the type of condition, which are conditionally divided into two types. With the full (true) type, the liquid immediately appears in the lungs of the victim. In an incomplete form, the following states are observed:
- reflex sudden contraction of the muscles of the larynx,
- oxygen starvation
- an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood,
- fragmented, uncoordinated action of muscle fibers or cardiac arrest (syncopal type).
First aid for drowning children should be provided immediately if symptoms appear:
- blanching or bluish appearance of the skin of the child,
- when feeling the baby’s body, its cooling is fixed,
- secretion of foamy liquid from the mouth or nose,
Attention! After the victim was removed from the water, the witnesses of the incident have only a few minutes to provide first aid to the child. When drowning children, it is necessary to act promptly to prevent the occurrence of irreversible changes in the organs and brain due to hypoxia.
Bans Your Child Should Know
When it comes to children's swimming, it is worth doubling your safety: in particular, it’s very tough to forbid doing several things even at home. These moments need to be said and made sure that the child has heard and understood you.
- Do not approach the water without telling your parents about it.
You always, at any moment of time, must know exactly where your child is - ideally, keep him constantly in sight and at such a distance that you personally will be able to swim without problems. If necessary, with a baby in her arms. A child at any age should know that it is impossible to enter the water without notifying the parents. Do not play games that flood each other.
Similar games are very popular among children - and very dangerous. You can’t drown each other while holding your head under water - in order to choke, a couple of minutes is enough. Just a couple of minutes, during which no one will begin to sound the alarm - and not to pass the troubles. Do not play such games yourself and do not allow children - including strangers. Do not swim beyond the conditional line.
This is not about buoys, but about that distance, which is limited by the course, abrupt subsidence of the bottom or other factors that an adult should take into account. Immediately respond to a signal to immediately return.
The easiest way is to immediately agree with the child about the signal for return. For example, it can be a whistle - it is enough for an adult on the shore to simply hang the whistle around his neck and, for any hypothetical danger, whistle the agreed number of times. Children who do not know how to swim never enter the water without additional funds.
Even in shallow water, you cannot appear without additional funds: note that rubber rings or vests are often particularly dangerous because they can become unusable at the most inopportune moment afloat. It is better to replace them with devices made of foam. Of course, aesthetically, they often lose first, and they take up more space during transportation, but safety in this case is much more important. Never jump into the water from the bow of a boat, from piers and moorings, from bridges.
This is especially true for unknown places - there may be concrete slabs directly under the surface of the water, there may be algae in the bottom, which are easily confused, or other dangers. You can jump from special towers only under the supervision of a trainer or rescuer.
Bans for parents
Of course, all adults know about these common truths, but it is useful to recall them again.
- Never approach water after any amount of alcohol and forbid children to do this if you have even drunk a couple glasses of wine.
- Do not let your child out of sight.
You should never let children go to water alone - even if it is a company of members of the children's Olympic swimming team: after playing, they can be spoiled, and there is not far from an accidental tragedy. At least one adult should constantly watch them from the shore. If you are not swimming very well, then when you go into the water with a child, be sure to tell the lifeguard of the hotel or beach about this.
It is worth clarifying that to wallow in a “dog” in shallow water does not at all mean the ability to “swim well”, often people very embellish their ability to stay at least tolerably well on the water. You must always remember that any open water is stronger than any, even the most skilled swimmer,
How to determine that a person is drowning?
What is shown in the films most often does not correspond to reality: no screams are heard, no one thrashing their hands randomly on the water. The most characteristic sign of drowning is clambering movements, as if a person was climbing up the stairs, plunging into the whole water and rising above the surface. Sometimes a defocused look. Any inadequacy in a person’s behavior in water should alert: if he doesn’t react at all to your treatment, you must immediately save him or call for help.
The rescue of a drowning man
If you do not know how to do this (have never trained in the pool under the guidance of an instructor), it will be most reasonable to immediately call for help. If this is not possible, it is best to drag the drowning man by the hair, trying to stay away from his hands - otherwise there is a risk of drowning yourself.
On the shore you need to do artificial respiration if the victim is unconscious. Very important at any age - in the case of children too! - take competent instruction and work out their actions several times in case of an emergency.
First aid can be taught by any pool coach or instructor at the nearest diving club. It won’t take so much time and it costs very little, but once such skill can save someone’s life.
Sunblock, a panama hat or a baseball cap, long-sleeve t-shirts protecting from the sun, “coral” slippers must be sure: some will help prevent heat stroke or overheating, others will protect your legs if there is a dangerous bottom.
Recall that children are not recommended to be under the scorching sun in the period from 11.00 to 16.00.