Blooming Forsythia, strewn with hundreds of bright yellow flowers, it is impossible not to notice! If a summer resident wants forsythia to be decorated with his plot every spring, planting and care in the open ground are the key stages on the path to success.
Perennial shrubs in Europe, one of the first to violate the monochrome of early spring, came from Asia and were named after the botanist who delivered the first seedlings to the Old World. Today, Forsythia is the most popular species for landscaping and creating hedges.
How and when to arrange planting and maintenance of forsia in open ground in a summer cottage? What does the bush need for friendly growth?
Conditions for planting Forsythia in the open ground
Forsythia is an amazing plant that changes its appearance every season. In the spring, these are branches without leaves, but densely strewn with flowers. In summer, the bush is covered with greenery, which in the fall changes color to golden or purple. Looking for a place for forsythia, you should pay attention to the areas in which the shrub will be clearly visible and lit.
Although Forsythia can stand being in the shade, in the sun the bush is formed more dense and even. The plant is undemanding to soil fertility, but develops better on soil with an alkaline reaction, good drainage. Culture:
- low maintenance
- It has excellent frost resistance, which simplifies wintering of Forsythia in open ground,
- tolerates drought well
- responds well to a haircut and can be used for growing hedges.
There are two options for planting Forsythia in the ground: in spring and autumn. In the first case, young shrubs after acclimatization immediately begin to grow, giving new shoots. Bushes transferred to the garden in the autumn only take root, and come into growth after wintering.
Forsythia planting dates
The time for transferring seedlings to the garden is chosen depending on the region and the quality of the planting material. Many nurseries today offer young plants with a closed root system. Seedlings grown in containers are transplanted together with an earthen lump, so the roots do not suffer, the bush easily and quickly adapts to a new place of residence. And the summer resident is guaranteed easy care for forsythia in the open ground after planting, whenever it occurs: in spring, summer or autumn.
For seedlings with an open root system, planting in the spring months, when the threat of sudden frosts go away, or in the fall, about a month before the onset of seasonal cold, is better. During this period of time, the shrub acclimatizes and will be able to prepare for winter.
Since the climatic conditions in the regions of the country are seriously different, there is a significant difference in the timing of planting and maintenance of forsia in open ground, in the Moscow Region and, for example, in central and northern Siberia, where the heat comes later and the summer is much shorter:
- If you delay the planting of plants in the garden, their adaptation and rooting will be delayed, and the shoots devoted to summer will not have time to get stronger before the onset of frost.
- Early spring planting threatens to freeze the buds, tops of shoots, and with severe frost on the soil - the defeat of growth points and roots.
In the fall, Forsythia planting in the ground also depends on weather and climatic conditions and can vary even within the same region, for example, as large as the Urals. If in the south gardeners live according to a calendar similar to that used by summer cottagers, then in the north the weather is much more severe and changeable.
Forsythia planting in open ground
Forsythia prefers dry, drained soil and does not tolerate stagnation of moisture in the soil. Therefore, at the bottom of the landing pits with a depth of 60 and a width of 50 cm, powerful drainage is made from broken brick, expanded clay or gravel. It is especially important not to neglect this measure in areas with dense, water-holding soil and where groundwater lies too close. An example is the landing and care of forsing in the Leningrad region.
A layer of sand and a previously prepared soil mixture based on:
- 2 parts of sheet land,
- 1 part peat,
- 1 parts of sand.
For each pit, 200 grams of sifted wood ash is mixed into the ground. The substrate is poured with a knoll, on the sides of which the roots of the bush are spread. After filling the pit, the soil is compacted and watered abundantly at the rate of 10-15 liters per plant. In the autumn after planting Forsythia, care for the shrub consists in thick mulching of the trunk circle. This will help preserve water in the soil and protect the roots from overcooling.
Mulch will help in the spring, especially where summer sets in quickly, and the soil dries quickly, being covered with a dense impenetrable crust.
Forsythia care after planting in open ground
An important advantage of Forsythia is undemanding and the absence of any special care. In the warm season, shrubs that grow rapidly with minimal care need:
- in irrigations, if there is no natural precipitation, and the soil under the plants is completely dry,
- in maintaining the cleanliness and friability of the trunks,
- in three times feeding,
- in a haircut that helps maintain health and shape of the crown.
In hot, dry times, plants are watered once or twice a month abundantly, a field of which the soil is loosened, weed and mulched. As mulch, you can use lowland peat mixed with humus and wood ash. This composition is the protection of the roots from overheating and excellent fertilizer prolonged action. In addition, shrubs respond well to the application of full mineral fertilizers before and after flowering.
In the second half of summer, do not fertilize the bushes with nitrogen. It will cause the active growth of young shoots, which even with the correct planting and care of forcing in the Urals, Siberia and the middle lane will not have time to ripen and die with the onset of frost.
An important part of forcing care is shrub pruning. For sanitary purposes, the removal of dead, old or damaged branches is carried out in the spring, and a haircut to maintain shape - in early summer, when mass flowering ends. More recently, yellow shoots of flowers can be shortened by half the length, and old branches are cut above the ground so that a few buds remain at the base.
Once every 3 to 4 years, forsythia is rejuvenated, evenly cutting all the shoots in half or two-thirds of the length. Over the summer, the plant will restore the crown, which will be dense, uniform and young, so that next spring it will please a friendly bright flowering.
In most regions, the plant hibernates excellently without shelters. If winters are not very snowy, before wintering, forsythia in open ground is gently tilted to the ground, fixed and covered with spruce branches or a dense non-woven material. At the first opportunity, the bushes are thrown with snow.
Forsythia propagation in open ground
Part of the branches remaining after trimming is an excellent material for obtaining cuttings that will serve the forsythia propagation. Green shoots are cut into pieces 10-15 cm long so that each has several healthy kidneys. The lower leaves are torn off, and the resulting stem, after treatment with a root stimulant, is planted in a greenhouse.
In autumn, another way of propagation of Forsythia in the open ground is possible. In the school, organized in a quiet place, protected from wind and flooding, lignified cuttings are planted. For the time remaining before the cold, the seedling will give roots, and 2-3 buds left above the ground surface in the spring will wake up and form a young crown of a shrub. Next fall, such plants can be planted in a permanent place.
Forsythia is not a very large tree or shrub, the height of which can vary from 1 to 3 m. The brownish-gray bark has a rough texture. In certain species, leaf plates are triple. However, most often they are oval, simple, oppositely located, do not have stipules, with a serrated edge, and can reach 2-15 centimeters in length. Saturated yellow flowers are bell-shaped. Forsythia blooms at the beginning of the spring, with a flowering period of 20 days (in some cases longer). The fruit is a box with winged seeds.
Features of Forsythia cultivation
Today, in European countries, most squares, private gardens and city streets are decorated with forsythia. It is considered a symbol of the arrival of spring. Imagine an early spring, when everything is still gray and nondescript on the streets, and suddenly your gaze grabs a foresight blazing with its bright flowers. A distinctive feature of this shrub is its very early flowering. Also, this plant has earned great love of gardeners due to the fact that it does not impose special requirements on the conditions of cultivation and care. The main features of growing:
- such a plant grows best in a well-lit place, but it can also be grown in shade,
- suitable soil must be liming,
- It is recommended to plant a dark green color next to conifers.
In autumn, green foliage changes its color to violet-purple or golden, which makes the plant regain its high decorativeness.
What time to plant
You can plant or transplant Forsythe in spring or early fall, before freezing starts, because the plant must be well rooted before frosts begin. This plant grows well in the shade, but it prefers a sunny area, which must be protected from gusts of wind. The quality of the soil does not matter for this plant, but it feels best in a dry, slightly alkaline soil. In the event that the land on the site is acidic, then it is recommended to add wood ash for digging.
Forsythia Europa (Forsythia europaea)
Forsythia Europa (Forsythia europaea)
In the wild is not very common, can be seen in Albania, Kosovo. It grows on rocky terrain in forests.
A deciduous sprawling perennial, two meters high, has strong, elastic branches, on which light green leaves 5-7 cm long are arranged in pairs. It grows quickly: an increase during the year is 25 cm in height and the same in width. Beginning of flowering - March - April. Golden yellow flowers, similar to bells, bloom before the leaves. Their diameter is 3 cm, length - about 7 cm.
Forsythia Europa (Forsythia europaea)
The shrub is a long-lived: in good climatic conditions and with minimal care, it grows up to 70 years. Landed both singly and in compositions, hedges.
Forsythia European loves light areas. To soil and moisture it is undemanding, frost-resistant. When freezing, shoots in the spring are quickly restored. In winter, it is recommended to mulch the soil around the plant with leaves.
The landing pit should have a size of 50x50x60 centimeters, while the root system of the planted plant should be at a depth of 0.3 to 0.4 m. When planting several specimens at once, a distance of at least 150 centimeters should be observed between them. At the bottom of the prepared landing pit, it is necessary to lay a drainage layer of crushed stone and broken brick, the thickness of which should be from 15 to 20 centimeters. From above it is covered with a layer of sand, the thickness of which should be 10 centimeters. After that, a soil mixture is poured into the pit, consisting of sand, leaf soil and peat, taken in a ratio of 1: 2: 1, into which 0.2 kg of wood ash should be added. Then the seedling should be placed in a prepared pit, which is filled with soil and well compacted. Planted Forsythia should be abundantly watered. During spring planting, the seedling will need to be taken care of as an adult plant. If the planting was carried out in the fall, then no matter what kind of plant was planted, it would be necessary to fill the trunk circle with a layer of mulch. In winter, the plant must be covered. In this case, the covering material should be used only that which lets air through so that the flower buds do not begin to sing during small thaws in the winter.
Forsythia drooping (Forsythia suspensa)
Forsythia drooping (Forsythia suspensa)
This variety of Forsythia, due to the long arched branches, is often called “hanging”, “weeping”, “drooping”. The bush grows up to three meters in height, has a straight trunk with a spreading crown and drooping shoots reaching the ground. Ovoid leaves grow 10 cm in length, are opposite. Green foliage acquires a purple hue by autumn. In inflorescences, from three to five yellow bell flowers bloom. Perennial blooms in the fifth year after planting.
Forsythia drooping (Forsythia suspensa)
The birthplace of the plant is Korea and Northeast China. The cultivated shrub has many hybrid varieties: Siebold, Fortuna, Ditsipiens (deceiving), Variegata (variegated) and others.
Despite good winter hardiness, the bush needs shelter. It looks good in solitary landings against the background of tall buildings, fences.
Forsythia must be taken care of in the same way as other shrubs grown in the garden. If it rains regularly in the summer, then you will not have to water this plant. This should be done only with prolonged drought 1 or 2 times in 4 weeks, while 10 to 12 liters of water are taken per 1 bush. After the plant is watered, weed and loosen the soil to the depth of the bayonet of the shovel, only this way it will be possible to ensure normal air access to the root system. When loosening is completed, the trunk should be sprinkled with a layer of mulch (dry soil or compost).
Forsythia should be fed 3 times during the season. The first time you need to feed the plant at the beginning of the spring period. To do this, a fairly thick layer of manure (necessarily rotted) is laid out on the surface of the trunk circle, make sure that it does not touch the branches or trunk. Then it is watered with plenty of water. Manure will become not only an organic fertilizer for the plant, but also mulch. Put in the soil full mineral fertilizer (per 1 square meter from 60 to 70 grams) should be in April. When the plant fades and the laying of flower buds for next year begins, it will be necessary to feed it with Kemira universal (per 1 square meter from 100 to 120 grams).
Young bushes need only sanitary cutting, during which all dried, injured, and also damaged by frost stems are removed. If Forsythia is an adult, then in spring only the frozen tips of the branches are cut off. The main haircut is done in the summer, when the bush fades. Those branches that have bloomed should be cut into ½ part, while dried and old ones should be cut at a height of 40 to 60 mm from the soil surface, in which case young side shoots will go from them. Using pruning, you can control the height, density and shape of the crown, which can be spherical or cup-shaped. In the event that the old bush needs a rejuvenating pruning, then all its branches must be cut to a height of 4 to 6 centimeters or shortened by 2/3, thanks to this young shoots will begin to grow actively. However, it is often impossible to carry out anti-aging pruning, because this foresight will grow very much, but flowering will stop completely. As a rule, a rejuvenating haircut is recommended to be carried out 1 time in 3 or 4 years.
Diseases and pests
This plant is highly resistant to diseases and pests. In rare cases, the bush may be affected by moniliosis, wilting or bacteriosis. The bush infected with wilting should be treated with a solution of foundationazole (2–5%). If Forsythia was struck by bacteriosis, then in this case it will have to be dug up and burned. If brown spots have formed on the surface of the leaf blades, this means that the plant is suffering from moniliosis. In this case, it is recommended that all affected parts of the plant be cut out and thoroughly cleaned to a healthy tissue. Also, the bush can suffer from nematodes, in this case, disinfect the soil with Carbation.
Forsythia after flowering
In order for Forsythia not to freeze in winter, it should be covered. To do this, you need to sprinkle the trunk circle with fallen leaves, while the layer thickness should be 10 centimeters. The branches are bent to the soil and fixed in this position, then the bush is covered with spruce branches. At the very beginning of the spring period, the shelter must be removed and the branches freed, while the fallen leaves should be removed from the trunk. If the bushes are still young, then they are covered entirely with fir branches for the winter. If there is a lot of snow in winter, then Forsythia can do without shelter, however, no one can predict the forecast for the whole winter accurately.
This species is very similar to European forsythia, but it is less frost-resistant. In height, the bush can also reach 200 centimeters. Almost all shoots are straight, but they are colored brown-yellow and are tetrahedral. Dark green elliptical leaf plates reach a length of 10 centimeters. Flowering is observed in May. Изящные большие бледно-желтые цветки обладают перекрученными лепестками.
Форзиция свисающая, или поникшая, или пониклая (Forsythia suspensa)
Данный кустарник с раскидистой кроной в высоту может достигать 300 сантиметров. Тоненькие четырехгранные дуговидные поникающие ветки обладают оливковым либо коричнево-красным окрасом. На старых стеблях листовые пластины простые, при этом на ростовых — тройчатые. Large (diameter about 25 mm) yellow-golden flowers are collected in several pieces in bunches. Several forms are cultivated:
- Motley (forsythia variegata). The color of the flowers is rich yellow. Leaf plates pale yellow, variegated.
- Fortune (forsythia fortunei). The flowers of dark yellow color are collected in bunches. Narrow leaf plates are triple.
- Purple stem (forsythia artocaulis). The stems are dark red. At the time of opening, the sheet plates are painted in the same color.
- Other forms: Forsythia of Zimbold, Forsythia deceiving, Forsythia hanging Fortune.
Forsythia Dark Green (Forsythia viridissima)
The height of the bush does not exceed 300 centimeters. Its green branches are directed up. Thickly growing simple leaf plates have a lanceolate-oblong shape, the upper part of them is serrated. They are painted in dark green color, reach a length of 15 centimeters, and a width of 4 centimeters. Small bundles consist of flowers that are painted in a rich yellow-green color. It is resistant to drought.
Forsythia intermediate (Forsythia x intermedia)
This hybrid was created by crossing forsythia dark green and forsythia drooping. In height, it can reach 300 centimeters. The bush begins to bloom only after he turns 4 years old. Leaf plates, as a rule, are oblong with a serrated edge, but there are also triple ones, in length they reach 10 centimeters. They are painted in dark green color, while their color remains unchanged until late autumn. The color of the flowers is rich yellow, they are collected in bunches of several pieces. Flowering is observed in April and May. This shrub is fast-growing, it is resistant to frost and drought. Varieties:
- Beatrix Farrand. Shrub in height reaches 400 centimeters. Saturated yellow flowers have a strip of dark yellow color at the base.
- Denziflora. The height and diameter of the bush is 150 centimeters. Twisted flowers are light yellow. Flowering is observed in May, and it lasts 15-20 days. It does not tolerate frost.
- Spectabilis. This variety is among the most beautiful. The height of the bush is about 100 centimeters, and its diameter is 120 centimeters. In the warm season, leaf plates have a green color, which in the autumn changes to rich yellow and purple. The diameter of dark yellow flowers is about 45 mm; flowering begins in the last days of April.
The height of the bush can vary from 150 to 200 centimeters. Spreading branches have a yellow-gray color. The length of the leaf plates is about 7 centimeters; in summer they are painted in a deep green color, which in the autumn changes to purple. The diameter of single flowers is about 20 mm; their color is rich yellow. This species begins to bloom earlier than others. It is fast growing and resistant to frost and drought. The most popular varieties are:
- Spring glory. The height of the bush is about 300 centimeters. Leaf blades are green in summer, and in autumn they become variegated (from dark purple to light yellow). Lush flowering is observed in May. Large flowers have a rich yellow color.
- Tetrahold. The height of the bush is about 100 centimeters. The diameter of the dark yellow flowers is approximately 30 mm. Flowering begins in the second half of April.
- Goldsauber. This variety is very valuable and popular. Large flowers are colored yellow-golden. Resistant to frost. Flowering begins in the second half of April and lasts approximately 20 days.
Not to notice or not pay attention to forcing is simply impossible. It is a direct-growing, sprawling bush, which resembles a tree in its size - in height it can grow up to 4 m and spread 2 m wide. Forsythia grows very quickly and can grow to its maximum size in 2-3 years.
Forsythia leaves are simple, small, oval in shape with notches. The branches of the shrub are strong, flexible, stiff. They are densely covered with small four-leafed bright yellow flowers that bloom wildly in early April. It is thanks to the huge concentration of flowers on the branches that the plant looks fantastic and cannot be disliked. The first bright, juicy and filled with colors from the inside flowers, delight the eye and create a spring mood.
In addition to the breathtaking appearance, it is also pleasing that forsythia is a very unpretentious plant and special efforts for its cultivation are not required.
The most common type of forsythia grown in our latitudes is a hybrid form of intermediate, middle forsythia. This group includes several species that are similar in characteristics. It is to this hybrid that the climate of our area is optimally suited.
When choosing a place for Forsythia, it is necessary to take into account its impressive size. It is advisable to choose a sunny area, forsythia can grow in partial shade, the main thing is to avoid strong drafts. The soil is suitable for medium fertility, light, not acidified.
It is better to choose sprouts for planting with a large amount of land on the roots - so there are more chances that the plant will take root quickly and painlessly.
When you have decided on a place and sprouts, it’s time to go directly to the landing. The best time for this is mid-spring or early autumn, periods when there is no strong heat, but the soil is warm and quite moist. It is necessary to dig a hole 50 * 50 cm in size and a depth of 50-60 cm. Pour drainage from fragments of brick and rubble at the bottom, a mixture of humus, sand and earth on top. Then, to a depth of 30-40 cm, carefully plant the plant, sprinkle with earth and water.
Watering should be moderate, forsythia tolerates dryness more easily than waterlogging. It is necessary to ensure that the water under the bush does not stagnate. And be sure to loosen the earth after each watering.
Before flowering and after it is a favorable time for fertilizer. To do this, you can take manure, plant in water and water the bushes. The main thing in this case is to strictly observe the proportions. In spring, under forsythia, it is necessary to put manure in a ratio of 50-100 g per bush and water everything abundantly. Before the plant begins to bloom, it must be fed with mineral fertilizers. The third top dressing is required after the plant has already faded. Forsythia also needs to be fed with phosphorus and potassium, but only at the end of the summer period. Branches tilt and wrap well for the winter.
In April, a full mineral fertilizer of 60-70g / m2 is also introduced. Another top dressing is carried out after flowering, when new flower buds are being laid. Kemira station wagon 100-120g / m2 is recommended.
Forsythia tolerates dry soil better than excess soil moisture. And only in the summer, if the drought is long, once a month the bushes are watered at the rate of 10-12 liters for each bush. After watering and top dressing, the soil under the plant is loosened and mulched.
For the winter period, bush branches need to be bent to the ground, attached with hairpins and sprinkled with foliage. Such a blanket will help the plant successfully winter, survive the frosts.
Forsythia bushes grow very quickly and actively, so in order to look well-groomed and neat they need to be trimmed. You can trim the plant only after it has already bloomed at least once. You can give any form to your liking. From the correct pruning, the bush will bloom even more. In the process of pruning, old dead branches are removed, too thick places are thinned out, and shoots that have faded should be shortened.
Forsythia is a very good option for gardeners with imagination. Forsythia bushes are easy to give the desired shape, and it successfully fits into the exterior of the site.
You can also create a hedge of incredible beauty from the bushes, and thanks to its structure (strong and flexible spreading branches), such a fence will also be practical.
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Forsythia Intermediate (Forsythia intermedia)
Forsythia Intermediate (Forsythia intermedia)
Hybrid large shrub reaching a height of 3 meters, a width of 2.5 meters. Blossom begins at the age of three years, the beginning of flowering - the end of April, lasting 20 days. On erect thick shoots of soft yellow flowers a lot blooms, they are located tightly to each other, forming inflorescences. The leaves are elongated, jagged.
This perennial is winter-hardy, drought tolerant, and growing rapidly. In landscape design is used as hedges.
Popular varieties of this type are: "Densiflora", "Lynwood", "Spectabilis", "Melissa", "Weekend".
Forsythia ovata Nakai
Forsythia ovata Nakai
The birthplace of the plant is the Korean Peninsula. The advantage of perennial is frost resistance and drought resistance. In mid-latitudes it can winter without shelter. The disadvantages include the transience of flowering. Small single flowers (2 cm) please with their yellow color a little more than two weeks. The first flowering can be observed 4 years after planting. Forsythia is ovoid growing rapidly.
Forsythia ovata Nakai
Shrub grows no more than 2 meters.
The bark on the ascending branches is a rough, gray-yellow hue. The greens are bright, by autumn, violet and orange shades appear on seven-centimeter leaves.
Famous varieties are Dresden, Goldsauber, Spring Glory, Tetrahold.
Forsythia Dark Green (Forsythia Veridissima)
Forsythia Dark Green (Forsythia Veridissima)
Under natural conditions, grows in Chinese forests with highlands. The bush is quite tall - 3 meters, with a greenish bark. It is densely covered with large dark green leaves (length - 15 cm, width - 4 cm). Flowers with a diameter of 4 cm have green-yellow pigmentation. The name corresponds to the whole appearance of this representative of the flora. Perennial after planting blooms after 5 years, not every year blooms.
This species is unpretentious to the soil, it feels good in arid areas. But it negatively reacts to low temperatures in winter; without shelter, the bush cannot be left for the frosty period. Therefore, for the middle latitudes, a special variety “Bronxensis” was developed, which is distinguished by its short stature.
Forsythia snow (Forsythia abeliophyllum)
Forsythia snow (Forsythia abeliophyllum)
Ornamental shrub 150 to 200 centimeters high. The leaves are oval, dark green, 8 cm long. In autumn they change their color to purple. Perennial differs from all other Forsythia in its unique flowering - lush inflorescences consist of snow-white flowers, during flowering the plant looks like a snowdrift.
Landing in the open ground: when and how to plant?
It is better to plant and transplant Forsythia in the spring season or in the early days of September, so that the plant grows stronger to frost.
Stages of the landing:
- Prepare nutritious soil - light and well-ventilated. To do this, prepare a mixture consisting of two parts of sand and one part of humus and sheet soil. If the acidity of the soil in the garden is high, it is recommended to add lime (300 g) or ash (200 g) to the planting hole.
- Dig a hole for landing with a depth and a width of half a meter. At the bottom lay a drainage layer (10 - 15 cm) of crushed stone and crushed brick. To fill up a drainage with a six-centimeter layer of sand.
- Carefully remove Forsythia from the container, lower it into the hole, falling asleep with prepared soil composition. The root neck should remain on the surface. Crush the earth around the plant, water and sprinkle with a mulched layer: humus, rotted leaves or straw.
When planting several shrubs, an interval of 1.5 to 2 meters should be observed between them, depending on the variety species.
Fertilizers and fertilizing
Forsythia needs to be fed at least 2 times during the warm season. Top dressing favorably affects the abundance and duration of flowering perennial.
- The first fertilizer is applied early in the spring. As a top dressing, rotted manure is used, which must be spread around the shrub without touching its trunk. Pour the manure with water. Such organic matter will be a "catalyst" for the rapid growth of perennials after winter, and in the future - its lush flowering.
- When the bush has bloomed, mineral fertilizers (Kemira-lux or potassium nitrate) are introduced, which will help in the formation of buds for the next spring season.
- Organic dressing can be applied as mulch in the fall, it will serve as a winter shelter and nourishment for the plant.
When growing Forsythia, weeds must be periodically weeded and loosened soil.
Forsythia is a thermophilic plant, does not like drafts. It is better to plant it in areas protected from the wind. Before planting a plant, you need to decide what type of forsythia will feel good in your climatic conditions. Almost all varieties of foresight can withstand small frosts (not lower than -10 degrees), but sometimes even shelter does not save them from freezing. This factor is unfavorable for the growth and flowering of perennials.
Species such as Forsythia Drooping, Giralda, and Dark Green do not tolerate frost, and regions with warm weather are better suited for their cultivation.
Forsythia "European" and "Egg-shaped" belong to frost-resistant species.
The ornamental plant develops well and blooms profusely in areas sanctified by the sun. In partial shade, Forsythia also feels comfortable, but strong shading should still be avoided.
Perennial enough of the precipitation that falls. Watering is required in long dry weather. It is enough to pour a bucket of water under each shrub twice a month. After this procedure, loosen the soil, you can mulch.
Forsythia quickly takes root and grows. It is better to immediately select a suitable place for landing. It is difficult to transplant an adult shrub, it does not always take root in a new area.
If nevertheless the need for a transplant has arisen, then it must be performed as correctly and accurately as possible.
In what season to do this work will depend on the climatic conditions of the area. If you live in the southern region, and the plant variety is winter-hardy, then you can transplant the plant in the fall. In other areas, you need to deal with transplant in the spring.
- Inspect the size of the crown of a perennial, draw a circle on the ground with approximately the same diameter. The size of the crown and roots are usually the same. The older the shrub, the larger its size; accordingly, digging it up without damaging the root system will be difficult. For safety, cut young cuttings for rooting.
- The whole root system does not take root, therefore, before transplanting, it is necessary to cut off part of the crown. This must be done to ensure full nutrition of the plant, as root restoration will take some time. All old branches are removed, only annual shoots need to be left, shortening them by a third (2 to 3 buds are necessary for growth). Determining the age of the branch is simple: the annual shoot is flexible, it has not yet become numb.
- Dig a bush in a circle, gradually deepening. Place the dug-out Forsythia on a cloth or plastic film laid next to it on the ground. Collect material at the roots so that the soil does not crumble. Transfer the perennial to a pre-prepared landing trench (prepared in the same way as during landing). It is important to insulate the bush for the winter with breathable material, mulch the trunk circle. Small, after pruning, shrubs can be covered with coniferous spruce branches and fallen leaves, when snow falls, powder it with snow.
One of the important stages in the care of forsition is pruning, the development of the bush and the abundance of flowering depend on it in many respects. Sanitary pruning is carried out in the spring: frozen, diseased or broken branches are removed. Forming haircuts are recommended in the summer or autumn, when the bush has bloomed. Trim old shoots, leaving low stumps. Shorten young branches by a third. It is necessary to cut branches touching the ground in time so that they do not sprout. To form a crown: rectangular or spherical, it is recommended only 3 years after planting.
The old shrub can be rejuvenated by cutting all branches to the height of three buds. Such a procedure will stimulate the growth of new strong forsythia branches. Радикальную стрижку можно проводить каждые 5 лет, но не чаще.
Многие сорта форсайтии устойчивы к зимним холодам и могут легко перенести небольшие морозы без какого-либо укрытия. Но погода в последнее время непредсказуема, поэтому проведение ряда мероприятий (особенно для молодых кустиков) до наступления морозов будет не лишним:
After the foliage has fallen, it is necessary to rake it out from under the shrubbery, water and loosen the near-trunk soil, and add potassium-phosphorus fertilizing. Mulch with a thick layer the soil around Forsythia with straw, peat or sawdust.
Flexible lower branches can be bent to the ground and fixed. Cover on top with another protective layer of spruce, straw or covering material.
When the snow falls, perennial "bury" in a snowdrift, it will protect against frost and wind.
One of the shelter options is a mini-greenhouse construction. Wooden boxes, frames from branches and boards around Forsythia are covered with a breathable shelter or burlap. Such a shelter will protect the plant from the cold and allow it to “breathe”.
As soon as the ground is free of snow in spring, the shelter is removed. Otherwise, Forsythia may block, bent shoots to the soil to free, so that they do not take root.
For breeding foresight use three methods.
The process of reproduction by seeds is time consuming and long. Seeds can be harvested only after flowering, and this will not be earlier than five years after planting a perennial. By the end of autumn, they will ripen in seed boxes, which are cracked. Seeds must be collected on time and maintained until ripening, two months, indoors at a temperature of +5 degrees.
Germination of self-collected seeds will be 30 percent.
Forsythia seeds can be purchased at a specialty store.
In March, sow the seeds in boxes with nutritious soil, water abundantly, cover the container with glass. Remove the glass regularly to air the soil. It is better to moisten the earth with a spray gun. Seeds will hatch after about 5 weeks. Glass is removed. When the sprouts reach a height of 5 cm, they are dived, planted in a greenhouse or greenhouse. During the summer, the young plant gets stronger, in September it can be planted in a permanent place. Weak bushes need shelter for the winter.
Novice gardeners prefer this method for propagation. Healthy branches of a bush with buds tilt and pin to the ground. A small incision can be made on the bark of the shoot to accelerate rooting. Sprinkle the place of planting a little fertile soil, water. Within a year, the root system will develop well and take root, young shoots will appear above the Earth. A new bush is separated from the mother plant and planted in a permanent place. You can apply this method of reproduction from spring to autumn.
The whole warm season is favorable for rooting cuttings.
Choose young shoots with live buds and prepare fifteen-centimeter cuttings. The shoot is placed for a day in rootin solution to stimulate growth. Plant in a container with moist soil, deepening five centimeters. Cover with a bag or jar. Cuttings must be watered and aired. Roots will appear on the handle in about a month. You can plant a plant in open ground in a year. A young shrub for the winter must be covered. Forsythia blooms in 4 years.
If Forsythia blooms lightly, then she doesn’t like something. There may be several reasons:
1) Unsuitable landing site:
- Forsythia loves light, non-acidic soil, always with drainage,
- the plot is not lit, the plant is constantly in the shade,
- drafts and wind are unfavorable for the plant.
2) Improper care:
- excess moisture leads to decay of the root system,
- in dry weather, watering is required: a bucket under the bush once every 2 weeks,
- overabundance and malnutrition,
- lack of loosening.
3) Incorrect pruning or its complete absence.
4) It is necessary to shorten the shoots only after flowering. Cut the old branches gradually, and not at once. Thinning overgrown bushes is necessary so that the roots can provide the entire bush with nutrients without spending them on extra branches.
5) Lack of measures to organize wintering.
Especially these measures are necessary in areas with a cold climate for non-frost-resistant varieties of Forsythia.
Diseases and Pests
Forsythia is infrequent. The main cause of the disease is an excess of moisture in the soil. If you overdo it with watering, then frequent loosening of the top soil layer is required. So the soil dries faster and the root system does not rot. The plant tolerates slight drought well.
Perennials should be periodically examined carefully to avoid the development of the disease when the first symptoms appear. Diseases affecting the bush include:
- Bacteriosis is the most dangerous disease for foresight. Its signs are yellowing of leaves with an edge that quickly spreads to the entire leaf, while the veins blacken. The bush soon begins to fade. Bacteriosis cannot be cured. There is only one solution to the problem - the destruction of perennials: they dig it out and burn it. If this is not done, then the disease will switch to trees, bushes and even flowers growing near. The soil after a dug plant must be decontaminated - treated with ordinary potassium permanganate.
- Withering is a disease of individual branches during the flowering period. Sick branches are removed, the entire shrub is treated with fungicides.
- Moniliosis is the formation of dark spots on foliage. Damaged branches are cut out, healthy ones are sprayed with Bordeaux liquid.
In addition to diseases, insect pests can also visit Forsythia.
Aphids start on the underside of the leaf, which then curls. A small insect is very prolific, if not destroyed, the plant will weaken. Chemical and folk remedies will help to cope with the pest. With a minor infection, a soap solution will come to the rescue (dissolve 200 g of soap in 10 l of water), bitter herbal decoctions of marigolds, dandelion, red pepper are effective. If a large number of insects divorced, then it is necessary to use chemicals, for example, korbofos (spray with a 0.2% solution of the bush).
For preventive purposes, ash can be used: sprinkle a tree trunk and spray on the plant itself.
Nematodes are small worms that infect green foliage. When they appear, the color of the sheet changes from green to transparent, holes form on it, the sheet folds. When infected with nematodes, you need to change the top soil layer to a new one, and treat the shrub with “Carbation”. In order to prevent the insect from wound up on Forsythia, marigolds can be planted under the bush, the scent of flowers will scare away uninvited guests.
Forsythia can be harmful in winter. In the absence of shelter, they peck the buds of the bush. It can protect the bush from feathered and frost agrofibre, which must be thrown on the plant.
Use in landscape design
Forsythia is a sunny shrub that symbolizes spring. Its flowering begins immediately after the snow has melted. This perennial is often called the "snowdrop".
Landscape designers use forsythia to design original compositions using various varieties of plants. They plant it in city parks and squares both singly and in groups. Forsythia originally looks with coniferous trees and evergreen shrubs - boxwood, periwinkle and others. Lawn grass is sown under the perennial, on a green background, the flowering shrub looks even brighter. The plant looks unusual against the backdrop of buildings and structures, on slopes and hills, in a hedge.
Gardeners have increasingly begun to use foresight for landscaping their personal plots. In the spring, it pleases with its luxurious flowering, in the summer it serves as an excellent background for bright colors, in the fall it attracts with orange or purple colors.