Chlamydia, or urogenital chlamydia - a sexually transmitted disease, is provoked by microorganisms Chlamidia trachomatis, chlamydia.
According to the World Health Organization, more than 250 million new episodes of infection through sexually transmitted infections are recorded annually in the world. The leading position in the structure of these diseases belongs to urogenital chlamydia - about 100 million cases.
Chlamydia in men is most often diagnosed at the age of 20-35 years, during the period of maximum sexual activity. Chlamidia trachomatis infection is the cause of urethritis (including non-gonococcal) in the vast majority of cases (more than 80%). According to some reports, every 15 out of 100 young people of reproductive age are infected with chlamydia.
Chlamydia in men can occur both in an explicit form and in a latent, asymptomatic (approximately 50% of cases). Quite often, the infection is chronic, in this case, microorganisms can persist in the affected organs and tissues, preserving pathogenic properties, for decades, sometimes for life.
Often, chlamydial infection is complicated by an ascending lesion of the genitourinary tract, causing inflammation in the prostate gland, testes, spermatic cords, testicle membranes, and can also lead to infertility (due to inflammation, the number of spermatozoa in the seminal fluid decreases, their mobility decreases). Chlamydia in men is often associated with syphilis, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis.
The ability of Chlamidia trachomatis at the subcellular level to attach to the sperm head, neck and proximal waist has been proven. In this case, male germ cells act as direct carriers of pathogenic microorganisms with unprotected vaginal contact, ensuring the introduction of infection into the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes. The consequences of a chlamydial infection for a woman can be infertility, tubal (ectopic) pregnancy, miscarriage and pregnancy complications, postpartum endometritis.
Causes and risk factors for chlamydia in men
The main reason for the development of chlamydia in men is infection with the microorganism Chlamidia trachomatis during unprotected genital-genital, genital-anal and oral-genital sexual contacts. A contact-household mechanism of transmission of the pathogen is also possible, for example, when visiting a sauna (contact of the genitals with a surface contaminated with chlamydia).
Chlamydia is an intracellular gram-negative pathogenic agent, which is characterized by a two-phase life cycle in the form of active intra- and inactive extracellular bodies (reticular and elementary bodies, respectively).
Infection occurs when the inactive elementary bodies of Chlamidia trachomatis come in contact with the mucous membrane of the urogenital organs, after which they are introduced into the epithelial cells and are transformed into an active reticular form capable of reproduction within 8 hours. Newly formed microorganisms exist in the host cell in isolation inside a special vacuole - these are the so-called chlamydial inclusions. At the last stage of the reproduction cycle, the active bodies become inactive, surrounded by a densified cell wall and, violating the integrity of the membrane of the affected cell, again enter the external environment, where they invade new healthy epithelial cells, repeating the reproduction cycle and thereby spreading the inflammatory process.
The complexity of the diagnosis and treatment of chlamydia in men is due to the intracellular location of the pathogen. Under the influence of adverse factors, the microorganism is able to transform into a “sleeping” form, being inside the host cells for a long time without causing an immune response and without provoking the symptoms of the disease. In the process of division, chlamydia is transmitted to daughter cells, where it continues to exist in an inactive form (this phenomenon is associated with a mismatch between the volumes of tissue infection and the clinical picture). Activation of Chlamidia trachomatis occurs, as a rule, with a decrease in body resistance, immunosuppression.
Risk factors for chlamydia in men:
- young age
- the presence of two or more sexual partners at the same time,
- a large number (more than 6) of sexual partners during sexual practice,
- single marital status
- low social level of sexual partners,
- Neglect of barrier contraception
- tendency to risky and deviant (deviant) behavior.
Forms of the disease
In accordance with the clinical classification adopted in Russia, two forms of chlamydia in men are distinguished:
- fresh, in case of uncomplicated infection of the lower genitourinary area,
- chronic, persistent, characterized by recurrent lesions of the upper parts of the urogenital tract.
A remote and most significant consequence of chlamydia in men is the development of Reiter’s disease, a severe autoimmune disease that is the most common cause of arthritis in men of sexually active age.
The staged progression of chlamydia in men implies the transformation of the disease from acute inflammation to a chronic process, only 3 stages:
- An active inflammatory process with obvious symptoms or an asymptomatic course, well amenable to standard pharmacotherapy.
- Latent infection, periodically activated under the influence of provoking factors.
- A chronic process that is practically not amenable to therapy.
Symptoms of chlamydia in men
The main sign of chlamydia in men in most cases is discomfort in the urethra, urethra (itching, burning, pain during urination) of varying severity.
Other symptoms that occur with chlamydia in men:
- scanty transparent discharge of a vitreous nature,
- hyperemia of the outlet of the urethra, the adjacent area of the glans penis,
- dysuric phenomena (urination disorders),
- subfebrile body temperature,
- severity and discomfort in the lumbar region, soreness and swelling of the soft tissues of the scrotum,
- deterioration of general well-being, unmotivated fatigue, weakness.
The incubation period for chlamydia in men lasts from 1 to 3 weeks from the time of infection. In about half of the patients, the disease is asymptomatic, discomfort in the urethra occurs sporadically, is mild or completely absent.
In some cases, chlamydia in men proceeds in the form of carriage, when pathogenic microorganisms persist in the mucous membrane of the urogenital tract in an inactive form. This feature is associated with a high activity of the immune system.
Diagnosis of chlamydia in men is carried out comprehensively, involves a comprehensive assessment of the medical history, an objective picture of the disease and the results of laboratory tests:
- episodes of unprotected sexual intercourse, sexual relations with unfamiliar partners up to 3-4 weeks from the onset of symptoms of the disease,
- the presence of characteristic complaints and objective data,
- polymerase chain reaction results (identification of Chlam DNA fragments>
To obtain the most objective picture when diagnosing chlamydia in men, a number of mandatory requirements must be observed:
- refrain from sexual intercourse during the day until the collection of diagnostic material,
- refrain from urinating at least 2 hours before taking tests,
- do not take antibacterial and antimicrobial agents (7-8 days) before the examination.
Chlamydia in men is most often diagnosed at the age of 20-35 years, during the period of maximum sexual activity.
General information about the pathogen
The causative agent of the infection is Chlamydia trachomatis. This is a gram-negative cocciform microorganism, located mainly inside the cell. It lives mainly in the urogenital tract. With the flow of blood and lymph, it can penetrate into other organs, affecting the conjunctiva of the eyes, the mucous membrane of the oral cavity and joints.
Chlamydia can exist in the body for a long time, without declaring itself. In the event of adverse conditions (taking antibiotics, acute respiratory viral infections, overheating or hypothermia), the bacteria go into hibernation, forming an L-shape. In this state, chlamydia can exist for many years. The presence of L-forms complicates the selection of antibiotics, leads to the formation of a persistent (existing without clinical manifestations) infection and is the main cause of treatment failures.
Treatment of chlamydia in men
The basis for the treatment of chlamydia in men is antibiotic therapy. Currently, the following drugs are most widely used:
- macrolides / azalides,
- quinolones / fluoroquinolones,
In addition to drugs whose action is aimed at eliminating the pathogen, the following agents are used in the treatment of infection:
- immuno-oriented drugs
- antioxidants and their synergists,
- proteolytic drugs
- pre- and probiotics.
Clinical and microbiological criteria for the effectiveness of chlamydia pharmacotherapy in men are monitored no earlier than 6-8 weeks after completion of treatment.
During therapy, it is necessary to abandon unprotected intercourse, an indispensable condition for a speedy recovery is the examination of a permanent sexual partner and, if necessary, its parallel treatment.
The main route of infection is sexual. Transmission of the pathogen is possible with any form of sexual contact (vaginal, anal, oral sex). Men are less likely to become infected with chlamydia than women, which is associated with the anatomical features of the structure of the urethra. The long urethra in men is a kind of obstacle to bacteria.
Chlamydia often enters the body of a man, not alone, but in good company. During the examination, a mixed infection is often detected: the simultaneous existence of chlamydia, gonococci and other pathogenic microorganisms. Interestingly, the transmission of chlamydia does not occur with every sexual contact. And if the probability of infection with gonorrhea is more than 75%, then for chlamydia this indicator is 25%. In other words, only one in four men after having sex with a carrier of chlamydia actually gets this infection.
Symptoms of urogenital chlamydia
The incubation period is 14-28 days. The causative agent is tropic to the mucous membrane of the urethra. This means that the first manifestation of the disease will be urethritis - inflammation of the urethra. In men, this condition is accompanied by the appearance of such symptoms:
- scanty mucous or mucopurulent discharge from the urethra,
- dysuria: burning, itching, or pain when urinating,
- itching and burning on the skin of the penis in the urethra,
- pain in the perineum, extending to the anus.
During the examination, the doctor may see swelling and redness of the skin around the opening of the urethra. Discharges with chlamydia are not specific, so you can’t immediately diagnose without a laboratory examination.
With the penetration of chlamydia into the bladder, cystitis develops. Urination becomes more frequent, false urge to the toilet. All these symptoms are not accompanied by fever. The disease can last for years with periodic exacerbations. The duration of the period of remission can be very different and depends on the state of immunity.
In 46% of men, the disease is asymptomatic. The man feels completely healthy and does not even know about infection. Activation of the infection and the appearance of typical symptoms of the disease occurs with a decrease in immunity. The following factors contribute to the exacerbation of chlamydia:
- exacerbation of chronic pathology,
- taking antibiotics and other drugs that affect local immunity,
- climate change.
Possible complications and consequences of chlamydia in men
The most common complications of chlamydia in men:
- orchitis (inflammation of the testes),
- epididymitis (inflammation of the appendages of the testes),
- the accession of other sexually transmitted diseases, against the background of a decrease in local immunity,
- connective tissue changes in the lumen of the urethra, leading to its narrowing,
- inflammation of the prostate gland.
Chlamidia trachomatis infection is the cause of urethritis (including non-gonococcal) in the vast majority of cases (more than 80%).
A remote and most significant consequence of chlamydia in men is the development of Reiter’s disease (complex damage to joints, organs of the urogenital sphere and conjunctiva of the eyes), a severe autoimmune disease that is the most common cause of arthritis in men of sexually active age.
The prognosis for recovery is favorable with timely diagnosis and immediate initiation of therapy. If treatment is started at a late stage of the disease, with a chronic infection, the prognosis for recovery worsens significantly.
Damage to the anorectal region
This form of the disease is accompanied by the appearance of such symptoms:
- itching, pain, burning in the anorectal region,
- scanty yellowish discharge from the anus.
When the process spreads above the anal sphincter, tenesmus is observed - false desires for bowel movement. There is pain during bowel movements. In feces, impurities of pus or blood are noted. In connection with severe discomfort and pain, constipation develops associated with fear of experiencing discomfort again.
Eye damage with chlamydia is accompanied by the appearance of such symptoms:
- mild or moderate eye soreness,
- severe dry eyes
- conjunctival redness,
- scanty mucopurulent discharge that accumulates in the corners of the eyes.
When such symptoms appear, an ophthalmologist should appear. Upon examination, the doctor draws attention to the nature of the discharge, notes redness of the mucous membranes of the eyes and swelling of the conjunctiva.
Inflammation of the throat with chlamydia is rarely an independent disease and usually occurs against the background of the spread of urogenital infection. Signs of the disease are not specific and occur in many other conditions:
- dry throat
- sore throat, worse when swallowing.
On examination, swelling, redness of the throat and tonsils are noteworthy.
Inflammation of the testicles and appendages
- pain in the area of the appendage (usually on one side)
- groin pain
- mucopurulent discharge,
- violation of urination
- pain during sex.
In the event of a testicular lesion, the following symptoms join:
- perineal pain extending to the anorectal region,
- pain in the scrotum and lower abdomen, projection of the sacrum.
During the examination, the doctor must palpate the testes and determine an enlarged, dense and quite painful appendage.
Inflammation of the prostate gland is accompanied by the appearance of characteristic pain in the perineum, extending to the rectum. Prostatitis often accompanies urethritis. With a long course, it can lead to impaired urination and cause erectile dysfunction.
Aseptic inflammation of the synovial membranes, fascia and ligaments of the joint is not directly related to the penetration of chlamydia, but is due to the occurrence of immunological reactions. The disease does not occur in isolation, but develops as a urethrooculosinovial syndrome. This pathology is characterized by the appearance of three key signs:
In addition to damage to the joints, mucous membranes of the eyes and the urethra, changes in the skin and mucous membranes are noted. Quite often, keratoderma is observed, in which keratinization processes in the skin are disrupted. On the palms and soles, dense flat foci of yellowish-pink color appear, rough to the touch. The size of the focus can reach 5 mm. With chlamydia, ulcers in the oral cavity also appear.
The inflammatory process with reactive arthritis is most often localized in these joints (in descending order):
- toe joints
- Hip, etc.
One joint is usually affected, although exceptions are possible. The first episode of the disease lasts about 6 months. In the future, an alternation of episodes of exacerbation and remission is noted. 20% of men develop damage to the tendons of the foot, which leads to impaired gait and posture.
Indications for examination
Chlamydia screening is indicated in such situations:
- the appearance of characteristic symptoms of chlamydial infection,
- the presence of other STIs,
- unprotected intercourse with a carrier of chlamydia,
- examination before planning a child,
- sperm donation.
Chlamydia is often combined with other STIs, including syphilis and hepatitis. Chlamydia infection significantly increases the risk of HIV infection. If the source of infection has not been established, the man is recommended to be screened for these infections. Не исключено, что половой партнер был носителем и этих заболеваний, а выявить их следует как можно скорее.If the result is negative, the examination should be repeated (for syphilis after 3 months, for HIV and hepatitis after 6 months).
To identify chlamydia, the following methods are used:
The material for the study is scraping from the urethra, the first portion of urine, prostate secretion. Before collecting urine, it is recommended to refrain from emptying the bladder for 3 hours. With abundant discharge, this interval can not be observed, and then the analysis is carried out 15 minutes after urination.
The PCR method has maximum sensitivity to chlamydia. In 98% of cases, this examination allows you to make a diagnosis. Since chlamydia are pathogenic microorganisms, additional identification of their titer at the initial stage of diagnosis is not required. Chlamydia in the body should not be. If they are, this is the reason for prescribing therapy.
ELISA alone cannot be the only diagnostic method. Without PCR, its results are meaningless. ELISA is carried out after completion of therapy and allows to evaluate its effectiveness. During the study, antibodies to chlamydia are detected, and their titer is determined. This indicator is necessary for the development of further management tactics for the patient.
Based on these data, the result is obtained:
A negative result occurs in such situations:
- no chlamydial infection
- the infection occurred less than 3 weeks ago
- more than 9 months have passed since the cure.
Upon receipt of a doubtful result, the analysis should be retaken after 2-4 weeks. If the answer is again dubious, it should be considered negative.
A positive result is found in such situations:
- there is a chlamydial infection, the infection occurred more than 3 weeks ago,
- less than 9 months have passed since the course of therapy.
With ELISA, not only the titer of antibodies is evaluated, but also their class:
- IgM is an acute or recent infection. They are determined 5 days after infection. Peak is 1-2 weeks. Persist for 3 months.
- IgA - occur in serum after 14 days, decrease by 2-4 months. The presence of these antibodies indicates reactivation of chlamydia.
- IgG is a previous or chronic infection. Determined in the blood 14-21 days after infection, stored for at least 9 months. In chronic infections, they are detected throughout life.
In clinical practice, the dynamics of the titer of antibodies is also important. An increase in their concentration by 3-4 times indicates activation of the infection.
At the heart of the treatment of the disease is antibiotic therapy. Antibiotics are selected taking into account the sensitivity of chlamydia:
- tetracyclines (doxycycline),
- macrolides (josamycin, azithromycin).
The course of treatment for chlamydial urethritis is 7 days. Therapy for infections of the overlying departments can last up to 21 days. After 14-28 days after completion of the course of treatment, a second analysis for chlamydia is taken. With a negative result, further observation is not shown.
Specific prevention is not developed. General STI protection rules include:
- Refusal of casual sexual relations.
- Barrier contraception (condom).
- Personal hygiene, especially when visiting the sauna, bathhouse, pool, public beach.
Compliance with these simple recommendations significantly reduces the risk of chlamydia.
FAQ, or Frequently Asked Questions
Are chlamydia dangerous for men?
Without treatment, chlamydia can lead to the development of prostatitis, give complications to internal organs, including the heart, liver and lungs. Chlamydial infection is also one of the causes of infertility in men.
Can chlamydia occur normally?
No, normal chlamydia in the human body should not be.
Do I need to treat chlamydia if they are found in the analysis, but nothing bothers me?
Yes, since reactivation of the infection can occur at any time.
Is it possible to become infected with chlamydia simultaneously with other infections (trichomonads, mycoplasmas, gonorrhea, etc.?)
Quite often, chlamydia comes in the company of other infectious agents. Chlamydia is also known to increase the risk of HIV infection.
Is it possible to prevent the disease after unprotected contact (is there emergency prevention)?
Within 2 hours after unprotected intercourse, the genitals should be treated with any of the available antiseptics: Chlorhexidine, Miramistin, etc. This does not provide 100% protection, but still reduces the risk of infection. After 2 weeks, an examination should be done to exclude the possibility of chlamydia infection.
What is an anti-chlamydia antibody titer and what is it talking about?
An antibody titer indicates whether there is a process dynamic. If the titer grows, then the infection is in an active stage.
PCR gave a positive result, the test for antibodies is negative. What to believe?
Antibodies in the blood appear only 5-7 days after infection. At this time, PCR can already give a positive result, and this analysis can be trusted. In addition, the immune system does not always correctly recognize chlamydia, and antibodies are not formed in this case.
Can an infection “go away” on its own?
Self-healing from chlamydia is a myth. Chlamydia go into a sleeping state and can exist in the human body for many years. With a decrease in immunity, the disease will again make itself felt. You can get rid of chlamydia only with the help of antibiotics.
Do I need to be treated with a sexual partner?
Surely, otherwise re-infection will occur.
Is it possible to get chlamydia in a sauna, pool?
Yes, but the infection is not through water, but when using general hygiene products, towels. If you be careful, the risk of infection is almost zero.
Chlamydia are called pathogenic microorganisms of a very small size, and they are mainly inside the cells of the human body. In a systematic series, they are located between bacteria and viruses.
Chlamydia inside the cell exists and develops within three days, then the cell is completely destroyed, and microorganisms begin to spread to other parts of the affected tissue. It is almost impossible to take a piece of material for analysis at this moment, therefore the microscopic technique for the study of smears and scrapings has a low information content.
According to statistics, if sexual contact was carried out without the use of barrier contraceptives, then infection with this disease occurs in ninety cases out of a hundred. Around the world, half of adult women and men are diagnosed with chlamydia. The incubation period is asymptomatic, therefore, it is almost impossible to detect an infection at an early stage. Because of this, the disease takes on a chronic form, leading to infertility.
In addition, during pregnancy, various fetal development disorders occur, miscarriages occur, and autoimmune somatic diseases, such as arthritis, occur. Therefore, chlamydia in men and women must be diagnosed as early as possible and treated promptly.
Signs of chlamydia in men
In 46% of men, the disease passes in an asymptomatic form, but even in this case, the person is a carrier of infection and is potentially dangerous to the sexual partner. The incubation period of chlamydia is 14-28 days, and often the first symptoms of the disease are noted two weeks after dubious contact. How is chlamydia manifested? Symptoms and signs of the disease may be as follows:
- In acute chlamydia in men, a symptom is a low-grade body temperature of 37.2-37.5 ° C, general weakness, and increased fatigue.
- From the urethra there may be vitreous, watery or mucopurulent discharge, especially noticeable after sleep.
- When urinating, itching, burning are possible, the first drops of urine may be cloudy.
- The acute inflammatory process in men can be accompanied by spotting during ejaculation, or at the end of urination.
- The external opening of the urethra may be swollen, reddened.
- Sometimes men feel unpleasant or painful sensations in the groin, lower back.
- After infection, the symptoms of chlamydia often subside, the discharge can only be occasionally in the morning and the person forgets about it, does not go to the doctor. Therefore, the acute phase of the disease often becomes chronic, leading to prostatitis, cystitis and other diseases.
Urogenital chlamydia in men - treatment
How to treat chlamydia? In men, the problem with the treatment of this disease is the patient’s late access to specialist services, and often doctors have to deal with chronic urogenital chlamydia.
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In the treatment of chlamydia, the drugs of choice are based on the characteristics of chlamydia, namely, the vital activity of these microorganisms occurs inside the cells. Therefore, only tetracycline antibiotics, macrolides and fluoroquinolones are the most suitable for therapy. The use of cephalosporins, sulfonamides and penicillins is not advisable, because of their low natural activity against chlamydia.
Before treatment, the attending physician determines the duration of infection, the onset of the first symptoms, intolerance to any drugs, possible allergic reactions and other chronic diseases. Based on laboratory tests, the following is also clarified:
- Immunity status
- The state of the hepatobiliary system - liver, gall bladder, pancreas
- Intestinal microbiocenosis
- The state of the urogenital tract
In the treatment of chlamydia in men, drugs are selected by a specialist also taking into account concomitant STDs - sexually transmitted diseases, since chlamydia is often accompanied by other infections:
- Antibiotics. The following drugs are prescribed:
- Tetracyclines: Doxycycline - Unidox solutab, Dorix, Vibramycin, Vibra-Tabs.
- Macrolides: Azithromycin (Sumamed, Zithromax, Hemomycin), Josamycin (Vilprafen) and Clarithromycin (Clarbact, Fromilid Uno)
- Fluoroquinolones: Ofloxacin (Phloxin, Zanocin, Tarivid, Ofloxin), Levofloxacin (Tavanik, Glevo, Levostar, Flexid), Ciprofloxacin (Cifran, Ciprobay, Ciprinol, Cipro-Bid), Spiramycin (Rovamycin), Norfloxin, Norfloxin, Norfloxin, (Lomflox), Sparfloxacin (Sparflo).
- Sometimes 2 antibiotics and antifungal agents (Pimafucin, Fluconazole) are immediately used in chlamydia treatment regimens for men with a complicated process:
- azithromycin with ciprofloxacin
- rifampicin with ciprofloxacin
- doxycycline with ciprofloxacin.
There is no single treatment regimen for chlamydia in men, since in each particular clinical case, a qualified doctor determines an individual treatment regimen, taking into account all the concomitant diseases, the patient's age, his individual sensitivity and other factors.
How does chlamydia infection occur?
In men, the causative agent of this disease affects the urethra (urethra), rectum, eyes. Unlike gonorrhea, chlamydia rarely affects the throat.
If unprotected sexual contact has occurred with a person infected with these microorganisms, then the probability of infection reaches 50%. The likelihood of catching chlamydia in the household way is extremely small, since this pathogen cannot live outside the human body, and for this it should be very much. Therefore, do not be afraid to go to a public toilet, bathhouse, use common dishes and a towel, this will not lead to infection with such an infection.
How do chlamydia affect the male body?
This sexually transmitted disease can inflict a crushing blow on a man’s reproductive function, causing infertility. Infection, penetrating the urethra and causing its defeat, ascends to the prostate along the ascending line. Chronic chlamydial prostatitis promotes the formation of cysts on the prostate gland and the depletion of its functions. After some time, its atrophy and sclerosis occurs. In this case, a complete loss of prostate functions occurs, and the gland itself begins to decrease.
In addition, chlamydia is almost always accompanied by such diseases:
Their development begins with an inflammatory process that provokes a chlamydial infection in the bladder, testicles and kidneys. Its presence destroys complex biochemical systems that are practically not restored after their defeat.
Symptoms of the disease
According to statistics, many genital infections are asymptomatic, including chlamydia. The incubation period of this disease lasts 14-28 days. Usually two weeks pass before the first signs of an unpleasant infection appear in the body.
How does chlamydia manifest itself? Symptoms in men (first signs) are as follows:
- scanty and transparent discharge begins to appear from the urethra,
- occasionally mild pain in the lower back, urethra, testicles and scrotum,
- when urinating, there is a slight soreness,
- due to intoxication, weakness appears, performance decreases,
- sometimes body temperature may rise slightly,
- in the urine, blood and pus may appear.
These are the main signs. Chlamydia in men can practically not manifest itself, and after a certain period of time its symptoms disappear altogether. Therefore, a man does not want to see a doctor. Meanwhile, the infection takes on a chronic form, which is fraught with serious complications.
What are the consequences of chlamydia infection?
Having examined the signs (chlamydia in men is a common problem), it is necessary to understand what complications this infection can lead to. It can affect many organs and systems of the body. Here is such an insidious disease - chlamydia. In men, the consequences can be very serious.
The most basic are impotence and infertility. Spreading, the infection affects the seminal vesicles with chlamydial vesiculitis, as well as bulbourethral glands, which causes chlamydial couperitis. As a result, complete irreversible infertility occurs in men.
Anal sex with the carrier of this virus leads to the fact that the infection begins to spread to nearby organs. There is proctitis, which contributes to the defeat of the rectum. If sexual oral contact is practiced, then chronic pharyngitis develops.
Cardiovascular diseases, inflammation of the joints - these are complications that arose against the background of chlamydia. If the infection gets into the eyes, then chlamydial conjunctivitis develops, which is fraught with complete blindness. Also, the disease contributes to the onset of the inflammatory process in the inner ear and dysfunction of the vestibular apparatus.
How is chlamydia manifested in men? A pathology such as Reiter's disease, which includes the classic triad: conjunctivitis, urethritis, arthritis, can indicate the presence of this infection. Each pathology individually brings a person great troubles, and their combination several times reduces the quality of life. This disease leads to damage to the upper layers of the epidermis, and can also affect the nervous system. Various encephalopathies and encephalitis occur, accompanied by seizures and nerve spasms.
How to carry out the sampling of material?
Taking a scraping from the walls of the urethra should be carried out in such a way that there is enough material for analysis. This is a rather painful procedure, but necessary. To do this, use a special disposable tool.
Before the procedure, a man should:
- drink alcohol
- eat smoked and fatty foods,
- visit the sauna or bath.
Such unusual rules are necessary in order for chlamydia to sharply activate and switch from a chronic to an acute condition, and this will greatly simplify the analysis.
Chlamydia tests in men
Microscopy is considered the most common analysis. A smear taken from the urethra is applied to the glass, dried and stained. Biological material is examined under magnification to see the presence of chlamydia. However, this method is not very informative, since its accuracy is only 10-15%.
The method of IF, or immunofluorescence, conducted in the laboratory, allows you to detect the main protein of chlamydia. This method is considered more accurate, but it is not able to determine whether a microorganism is viable or not. Therefore, the result can be positive or negative.
For sowing, biological material is taken from the urethra, placed in a special nutrient medium, wait longer until the microorganisms germinate.
The most effective is the PCR method, which we will consider in more detail.
Such an analysis is considered the most accurate and informative. To establish a diagnosis, a small amount of biological material (tissue samples, blood, etc.) is taken. Most often, blood is used for research, less often - scraping or smear.
The chlamydia PCR method has a number of undeniable advantages:
- high level of specificity
- diagnosis in a short time,
- high sensitivity, due to which infections are detected that are not only acute, but also latent in nature.
Традиционные анализы не во всех случаях выявляют возбудителя инфекции. Метод ПЦР на хламидии дает развернутый результат, что позволяет начать лечение на первоначальном этапе развития заболевания. Сдается такой анализ обязательно натощак.