Memos. Recommendations Examples.
Basic requirements for public speaking
When we prepare for a public speech, some types of speeches do not seem to us very difficult. We need to learn to speak well in front of an audience in a variety of conditions, and for this we must master the ability to prepare public performances of various genres - informational, persuasive, protocol-etiquette, and entertaining. Different genres, as well as different forms of public speaking (lecture, lecture, presentation, etc.) require different methods of preparation. But there is in rhetoric general rules for preparing a public speech - rules that can and should be applied in the preparation of almost any speech in any genre. These rules are called general requirements for public speaking.
What are the main requirements:
The decisive start of the performance.
Establishing and maintaining contact with the audience
The clarity of the main point.
9. Decisive end.
1. The decisive start of the performance.
The first phrase of the speech should be thought out, prepared in advance and well learned. You can not stumble in the very first phrase of a speech or think about what you will start with - the audience will immediately consider such a speaker uncertain, incompetent. The first phrase should be clear and understandable to the audience. It should be prepared in advance and well rehearsed, pronounced confidently and expressively.
Drama is a strain in the text. Drama is created in a speech in a deliberate clash of different points of view, by entering a speaker into a dispute with any opinion, authority or point of view, in the story of any unusual or tragic events, incidents. As Dale Carnegie said, “the world loves to hear about the fight.” Drama should be created in the text at the stage of its preparation.
3. Restrained emotionality.
Emotionality is a mandatory requirement for public speaking, an absolutely necessary element of it. Listeners should feel that you speak emotionally, excitedly, that you yourself are not indifferent to what you say. The performance should in no case be monotonous.
However, emotionality should be precisely restrained. One cannot but agree with the famous American specialist in teaching rhetoric P. Soper, who wrote that the listener feels awkward at the sight of the speaker’s emotional revelry. Let us recall the famous Gogolian statement about a teacher-orator who, when talking about A. Makedonsky, broke up so much that he broke his chair: “Alexander the Great, of course, is a great man, but why break chairs?” In this connection, it is preferable to give facts that evoke listeners emotions, rather than talking too emotionally.
Brief speeches are considered in most audiences as smarter, more correct, containing true information. The brevity in the Russian audience is especially appreciated, which is reflected in the well-known proverb “Short and clear”: its meaning is that if it is short, then, therefore, it is clear.
It is imperative to comply with the allotted time limit and meet the allotted time. You need to learn to speak briefly.
American President Franklin Delano Roosevelt gave good advice on this subject. Explaining to his son how to speak publicly, F. Roosevelt gave him three tips: “Be sincere, be brief, sit down.”
The performance should be a dialogue with the audience. The speaker does not have to speak all the time, he must ask the audience questions, listen to her answers, and respond to the audience’s behavior. Any presentation should have the features of a conversation. These questions may be rhetorical, but they allow to increase the effectiveness of oral presentation, especially short dialogues with the audience during the presentation itself.
The presentation style should be primarily conversational, the presentation should be in the nature of a relaxed conversation. This is the colloquial style of performance.
Paul Soper wrote: “Public speaking should have the qualities of a good interview with some amendments regarding voice, manners and topics to be fully consistent with the presentation.” The spoken language of the speaker’s speech significantly increases the credibility of the speaker, and therefore the content of his speech.
No need to use a lot of special, book, foreign words, you need to say simpler - this is also a manifestation of the requirement for conversationality. You can use (moderately!) Colloquial words, humor, a joke.
7. Establishing and maintaining contact with the audience
It goes without saying that this requirement is among the most important. What does it mean to “establish contact with the audience”? This means looking at the audience during the performance, monitoring its reaction, making changes to its performance depending on the audience’s reaction, demonstrating friendliness, friendliness, willingness to answer questions, and conducting dialogue with the audience. The audience must be divided into sectors and look at each sector in turn.
8. The clarity of the main point.
The main idea should be formulated in words, and preferably - at least two to three times during the speech. In the vast majority of cases, the audience loves the conclusions and awaits conclusions from the speaker in a formulated form.
9. The decisive end.
Like the beginning, the end of the speech should be short, clear, understandable, well thought out. The final phrase must be thought out in advance and formulated in words. It, like the initial phrase, must be rehearsed to pronounce without hesitation, clearly and clearly. The final phrase should be pronounced emotionally, somewhat slowly and meaningfully, so that the audience understands it well and at the same time understands that this is the end of your speech.
In public speeches of different genres, some of the general requirements cited may manifest themselves to varying degrees: for example, clarity of the main idea is more important in persuasive than in entertaining speeches, brevity is more important in informational than in some types of protocol-etiquette speeches, and emotionality in protocol-etiquette speeches can be higher than in informational ones, where emotions are required to a much lesser extent, etc.
«Tips for a novice speaker. ”
1. Talk only about the fact that you know well what excites you personally, what you personally are interested in.
2. Respect your listeners, do not think that they are dumber than you.
3. Do not shout. Convince with arguments and facts, not with the power of voice.
4. Do not try to say a lot at once. Be concise but persuasive and logical.
6. Address not only the mind, but also the hearts of the listeners.
7. Follow the correctness of your speech. If you are not sure that you will pronounce the word with the correct stress or if you do not know the meaning of the word or expression inaccurately, replace it with another.
8. Use proverbs, sayings, catchphrases. They are your friends and will help to make your speech figurative and expressive.
9. Remember that a successful performance is when it is well thought out and prepared.
1.Remember that presentation slides are prepared after completion of work on the text performances and are escort for the main content of the oral communication.
2. Number of slides depends on the amount of information reportedbut recommended to limit 10-12 slidesthat reflect the main provisions of the topic.
3.When choosing meaningful coordinates for each slide, use practice of conceptual division of information: emphasis in the text prepared for the oral presentation, conceptual provisions that will become the basis for the content on the slide. (But the volume of verbal recording should not exceed 40 - 50 words.)
4. Verbal information should be stated abstract and concise, recommend using techniques for distributing information on a slide paragraph marking and font and color selection (But you should choose a single style of highlighting and design that will not distract from the content.)
5. Slide show should be timed(You should choose the optimal time - from 3 to 5 minutes, which will allow students to keep in memory both visual and verbal information.)
6. Verbal information on the slide can be supplemented symbolic drawings. (But you should choose a single style for the design of the picture so that the record as a whole corresponds to the tasks of the message.)
7. Presentation materials should successfully dcomplement and illustrateMessage text. ( You should not read text from the screen or, conversely, ignore displayed visual information.)
8. The design of the text and its components must comply with the standards of perception. (It is recommended to choose a sans-serif font, 18 -20 point in 2 intervals, marking text information with blue or red.)
Observing rules of information dialogue, you need to prepare a slide show so that it didn’t disturb the speaking process, provided polycode mode.
What makes a good presentation?
At the most elementary level, a good presentation is when the speaker is not vomited on stage and the audience does not fall asleep. Okay that's too elementary level.
At a higher level, a good presentation will meet three requirements:
- Informativeness: A good presentation contains all the necessary information, and only the necessary information in order to convince the audience. Do not try to overwhelm the audience with unnecessary facts and numbers, no matter how accurate and true they are, this will only lull everyone.
- Impression: To make an impression does not mean to launch fireworks or arrange Hollywood special effects during the presentation. However, you need to include visual supports in your presentation so that your words remain in the memory of the audience. Visual supports can be images, graphics, videos, and even such simple things as body language and relevant gestures.
- Story: The human mind loves stories. Facts and images can quickly tire an audience if they are not united by meaning, structure, or common purpose. But if you link both of them into a chain of interesting events, you can go on an exciting journey with the audience, and they will inextricably follow your story!
If you want to learn more ideas and tips on how to create a presentation that inspires your audience to act, be sure to read the following article:
Today, let's go a little further and see how you can deliver an amazing speech and not let the excitement stop you.
What to do in the worst case
The very thought of the need to make a presentation can unsettle you, because speaking in the presence of many people awakens one of the most powerful human fears in us: fear of defeat and fear of rejection.
Now add to this mix the opportunity to be defeated in the form of public humiliation on stage, and the ability to be rejected by the insulting screams of the crowd. It is not surprising that it is easy for us to understand why speaking with a presentation can cause such paralysis and anxiety.
The best way to deal with presentation worries may seem paradoxical to you at firstbut this is - imagine the worst case scenario. What could happen in the worst case?
Do not think about it in such a way as to wallow in self-pity, but in such a way as to take all measures to prevent these dangers and relieve yourself of anxiety, because you are well prepared.
In fact, the “worst case scenario” is a concept that is often used in risk management when it is necessary to prepare a strategic plan to solve a complex problem or hold a major event. And in the case of preparing a good presentation, the “worst case scenario” plan looks something like this:
1. Think about the audience, not about yourself
I do not mean to represent the audience in underwear (or naked)! I don’t know who came up with this idea, but to be honest, this method has never helped me in preparing the presentation. It just makes me feel awkward.
In fact, I mean that you need to forget about yourself and fully focus on your listeners. The reason you are so worried and cannot breathe is because you think about yourself:
- How will I look on stage?
- What will the audience think of me?
- What if I ruin everything?
- What if they don't like me?
No wonder you bit all your nails!
Instead of thinking about all the ways you can fill up a presentation, turn your attention to the people in the room and think about how your presentation can help them:
- What will the audience learn from your presentation?
- What benefit will the audience get from your presentation?
- How can your information and knowledge improve people's lives?
As soon as you focus on the purpose of your presentation and how important this goal is for your audience, you will realize that no one in the room wants you to succeed! On the contrary, they not only do not want to condemn you and decide that you are bad, they want to hear a good presentation from you. They want to learn something from you.
What service can you provide your audience? What can you tell them? Think about them, not about yourself, and you won’t notice how your excitement dissipates.
4. Prepare slides for presentation in advance
If you will speak in front of an audience at a conference or a potential client, you will surely use visual supports, for example, PowerPoint slides during a presentation.
The worst thing that you can hurt yourself is to leave the preparation of presentation slides at the very moment. Even if you don’t really think about it, knowing that you still need to prepare the slides adds the unnecessary stress that you experience in the days leading up to the performance.
As soon as you finish writing the text, start working on PowerPoint slides so that they are ready for you in advance, so that you don’t worry, and you can concentrate on preparing the presentation.
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If you need advice on the different components and benefits of our recommended templates, read our Basic Guide to Microsoft's Best PowerPoint Templates, or the article below:
5. Train, train, train
Have you ever heard how stand-up comedians prepare for a performance? When they are on stage, it seems to you that they are constantly improvising, and jokes appear from their air. In fact, everything they do and say, even pauses, is created as a result of hours of hard rehearsals.
You should follow this example as you prepare for your presentation. So you can minimize the excitement before the performance.
Train, train, train.
Rehearse not only with text, but also with presentation slides. Rehearse what you say, what you show, what you will do, and how you put it all together.
Do not train so that your presentation seems memorized, but so that you learn all the key points, and it sounds natural.
6. Record and browse
Body language sometimes speaks more than words. Do you look confident when making an offer to a potential customer? It can be seen from you that you know a lot about your profession, or not? Do you look friendly and welcoming or sandwiched and conceited?
There is no need to remain ignorant about this, or, worse, worry. Get down to business and save yourself from doubt. Record yourself on your phone or camcorder and see how you look during the presentation. Review your presentation and take notes on what can be changed for the better.
Rehearse your presentation with friends and colleagues. (graphic source)
Whenever possible, invite friends and colleagues to participate as your audience. Or train in a large conference room with a group of colleagues. Rehearsing in front of a live audience is not only better, but you will also have feedback from them, and they will tell you what you can do better in your performance.
7. Come in advance
Did it happen that you got stuck in traffic and were late for work? This is stress, right? What about being late for a meeting? More stress, isn't it? You know that people are waiting for you, and if you are late for a meeting, it will make a bad impression.
Now imagine that you were late for your presentation. Horror! How do you like a scenario that will give a night without sleep!
Instead of taking the risk or letting the excitement of this opportunity ruin your nerves, do the opposite - plan to come in advance. As soon as possible.
When you arrive early, you have time to familiarize yourself with the situation and you will feel more confident during the performance.If your presentation will take place during a large event or conference, you will have the opportunity to meet and talk with the organizers, other speakers, and even some members of the audience before you go on stage.
Even if you don’t have the opportunity to come to the place of the presentation in advance (for example, you plan to present a project with an offer to a potential client), you can still go into the building near the place of presentation, relax, gather your thoughts and prepare for the presentation without worrying about time, traffic jams and anything else.
8. Check hardware
Another advantage in arriving at the place in advance is to ask to check all the necessary equipment to make sure that nothing will let you down during the presentation.
Depending on the type and scale of the event at which you will speak, you will have different possibilities regarding access to the premises and equipment. But you will always be smart when asked to check the equipment that you will use.
Also, do not come with just one version of your presentation, saved on one medium, in the hope that everything will work. From this, of course, the mind can become confused by excitement, and just a few minutes before the presentation.
Always save your presentation on different media (for example, USB, your laptop, and in the cloud) - so that you can have access to it if necessary in case something goes wrong. Do you have a cable that connects the projector to your laptop? Take it with you. Who knows, what if you need him?
Technology may fail, but that does not mean that we will worry about it. Get ready in advance to stay calm in case something happens.
10. Breathe deeply
This is not a metaphor. I speak literally.
Deep breathing is a scientifically proven method of relaxation, stress reduction and the ability to generally change your attitude to events.
Just before you enter the stage for a performance, take 5-10 deep breaths. Inhale as much air as possible slowly and exhale slowly. This will help you relax, focus and get rid of the minor excitement that may still remain after your detailed preparation.
You feel calm, balanced, confident, and now you can go out and defeat everyone!
Make a good presentation, be confident and defeat everyone! (graphic source)