Planting potatoes is carried out in various ways. You need to choose the appropriate method for the region and convenient for the grower. They determine the right time when to plant a vegetable, to know how to properly cultivate the land so that weeds do not appear. In this case, the potato will delight in its quantity and quality.
You need to plant potatoes correctly then the result will be
Planting potatoes in your country house is necessary according to all the rules. Potatoes are unpretentious to the soil. It develops well both in chernozem and in loamy, sandy soils. It is best to choose flat areas of land where light enters freely. Fertilizers will help fill the lack of trace elements in the soil.
In the event that groundwater passes close to the surface of the earth, it is recommended to make ridges. In the elevation made, holes are made in which prepared germinated tubers are planted.
Tubers are usually planted in mid-spring, but can also be planted in summer. Agronomists argue that in the summer planting of potatoes there are only positive aspects.
Potatoes can be grown from tubers or sprouts. As soon as the sprouts from the eyes hatch, they begin to plant in the open ground. In one recess 4-5 healthy sprouts are placed at a distance of 15 cm. The interval between such groups of sprouts should be at least 20 cm.
Quality potato seeds are the key to a good harvest
Different types of potatoes are distinguished, which differ in different ripening periods of the crop, color and size of the tuber. Which varieties are suitable for a particular region depends largely on climatic conditions.
Early varieties begin to ripen after 65 days. Mid-early varieties will allow harvesting in 75 days. Ripening of medium-late and late varieties of potatoes occurs only after 100-120 days. In Russia, for example, planting potatoes is best early and medium early varieties.
Choosing seed potatoes you need to study the characteristics of tubers, where it is recommended to grow a vegetable. The size of the seed should be approximately 5-6 cm. The tubers should be dense, smooth, dry. On tubers there should not be any spots of rot, cracks, cuts.
The method of planting potatoes manually "under the shovel"
This is the easiest, most famous and oldest way to plant potatoes.
Convenient when working together. One spade makes holes, and the other follows and puts tubers in these holes. The holes are located in one row at a distance of 50-60 cm from each other. Between the rows, optimally should be 70-90 cm, so that each bush receives enough light, and then it was convenient to spud.
The ground, taken out by a shovel from a hole in the second row, is covered with potatoes in the first row. That's the whole technology.
Anyone digging holes presses a shovel with one foot, and the other leg leaves a mark on the ground at a distance just right for the next row. The second row is being organized along this track. But lovers of beauty and order can pretension a cord or twine and make holes along it. Then the seedlings will delight the owner in even, as in a ruler, rows.
The land for this method of planting should be loose, and the site is flat and not very large, since, as you know, the method is quite laborious. Therefore, summer residents use it at their sites, they use mechanized landing on an industrial scale.
If the ground has not been prepared since the fall, then a handful of humus can be sprinkled in each hole, mixing it with the ground.
Rows need to be done in the direction from north to south, so that during the day the bushes are lit evenly: first in the morning - from the east, at noon and with sunset - from the western side. If you arrange the rows from east to west, then from the north side the bushes will always be in the shade, our potatoes will be uncomfortable and the yield will be lower.
The area allocated for potatoes depends on the size of your garden. It’s good when there is so much land that you don’t have to rack your brains;
If the plot is tiny, and there are a lot of plans in your head, then you have to find non-standard solutions. And this is what the cunning Chinese came up with.
Planting potatoes in the Chinese way
As you know, there are very many Chinese in the world, and they have very little fertile land. Therefore, each scrap of them is used 100% or more. I myself witnessed how the guard of a private beach on the Yellow Sea cultivated onions and beets, literally a few each, on a narrow stretch between the sidewalk and the fence.
But how do they grow potatoes? That's how. Dig a hole measuring 75x75 cm and a depth of half a meter. The earth at the bottom is well loosened, about a third of a bucket of compost is poured there (you can take well rotted manure), 30-50 grams of superphosphate and a handful of ash. All mix well.
In the middle of the pit, they put potatoes with sprouted eyes and bury them to a depth of 8 cm. Previously, to activate the potato eyes, around the tuber’s circumference either make a simple cut to a depth of about 1 cm, or even cut the flesh in this place to make an hourglass from the tuber . To prevent decay, the incision site is treated with ash.
As soon as the stems above the ground have grown to 15 cm, a 10-centimeter layer of loose earth is poured around. The tops reach up and, as soon as it has grown again by 20 cm, they once again fill it with earth, leaving only a few top leaves on top.
And they do this several times until the pit is full. Each time, this is fed with manure, ash and superphosphate, only in smaller quantities than during planting.
Once a week they are watered and from time to time they pinch part of the buds so that they do not consume nutrients, but get to the formed tubers.
They say that the Chinese thus get 20-24 kg of potatoes from one tuber. Agree, from this amount you can cook dinner for a large family, and even more than once.
The advantages of this method are obvious:
- you can use a small piece of land,
- planting material is saved,
- no need to weed and spud,
- frequent watering is not required,
- easier to protect against the Colorado potato beetle.
But not so simple. The main disadvantage is that it is not possible for Russian gardeners to extract the promised kilograms from the pit. Chinese cunning on Russian soil did not take root.
But we, Russians, are also not born. We came up with our tricks. Here is one of them.
Getting ready to plant potatoes
A rich harvest is obtained only if you know the exact time when you can plant potatoes in the ground.
If you plant potatoes too early in unheated soil, then it will sprout poorly, develop slowly. At the same time, immunity decreases, the risk of infection with infections increases.
A favorable landing time should not be missed. Otherwise, all the moisture absorbed by the soil during the melting of the snow will evaporate. And it is very useful for plant growth.
The best period is when the topsoil (about 10 cm) is warmed up to +8. It is to this depth that tubers are planted. Most often they begin to plant on May 10. By this time, morning frosts usually go away too.
Rows for planting potatoes are best placed from north to south. The distance between rows should be about 70 cm. In each row, the distance between holes with planting material should be at least 30–40 cm for early varieties and 45–50 cm for mid-early and late-ripening species.
Planting potatoes under a straw
This method was probably invented by “lazy” gardeners who appreciate spring time and remember the proverb “Spring feeds the year”. Planting potatoes under straw does not provide for the laborious digging of the plot, which saves time.
Tubers are laid out in rows directly on the heated ground. Then straw is thrown over 30-50 cm. All. The potato is planted.
This could end the description of such a method, but let's tell you some nuances.
Before covering with straw, tubers can be lightly sprinkled with earth. The potato will then not turn green and will sprout faster.
If the tubers sprout a little before planting, you will get an early harvest.
Watering is necessary only in case of severe drought, as the moisture under the straw is well preserved.
No hilling required.
Instead of fresh straw, you can take last year’s, which after use was dried and stored in a dry place until spring.
Tubers grown under straw are smooth and large. Since they lie almost on the surface, then to collect them, it is enough just to rake the straw.
It is very important that the soil structure improves, rotting hay serves as top dressing.
And most importantly - they planted 1 bucket of potatoes, and collected 12-20 buckets! And these are not Chinese promises, but the real Russian reality!
Watch the video in which experienced gardener Galina Kizima shows how she plants potatoes under straw.
In my opinion, the method of planting under the straw is just perfect, you can’t imagine any better. However, someone complains: "I have a tiny plot and a completely unsuitable place for potatoes, nothing will grow there."
And now, do not plant potatoes? Thank God, the craftsmen have not yet transferred, they here have found a way out.
Soil and its preparation
The land is prepared in advance for planting a vegetable. To enrich the soil with oxygen, in the autumn and spring the soil is dug up. During the autumn digging it is not necessary to level the plot with a rake. In the autumn, digging the ground, it is recommended to make fertilizers. In the spring, the soil is again dug up and loosened.
Traditionally, potatoes are planted in spring, around the beginning of May. But lately, vegetable growers began to plant for a double crop even later, at the end of July.
The rate of potatoes intended for growing hectares per 1 hectare depends mainly on the size of the tubers. If their weight averages 50–80 g, then about 2.5 thousand tubers per hectare will be required.
By mid-summer, plots are already freed from growing early vegetables (for example, onions, lettuce), so the fertilized plot is already ready. By this time, the peak activity of the Colorado potato beetle and other pests is minimized. The earth warms up well, and the development of tubers is more active, seedlings appear faster.
Late planting of vegetables is widespread in the southern regions. To grow a late crop in the temperate and middle lane you need to make a number of efforts. Be sure to select the appropriate variety, to ensure timely and sufficient watering. Not the least role is played by weather conditions.
Warm, not too hot weather with occasional rains will allow you to collect a large crop of potatoes planted in July. But most often in the middle of summer there is hot weather, so the vegetable will need to be protected from overheating of tubers. The ideal way to combat heat is to mulch the soil.
Early varieties are best suited for the summer planting of potatoes; their ripening occurs already after 50–70 days. In this case, it will be possible to harvest before frosts. The main thing is that the air temperature does not fall below +8 degrees.
How to prepare for planting seed potatoes?
Seed potatoes must be prepared for planting, it must be processed and sprouted. Potatoes may not sprout without sprouts. During winter storage, tubers can deteriorate, so they need to be sorted. For sowing leave smooth, dense tubers without damage and deformation. It is also useful to sort by size.
The selected tubers are placed in boxes with ventilation holes and moved to a warm, bright room (air temperature is about +11 degrees).
You can roughly calculate the rate of planting material. For this, gardeners need to multiply the length of the row by their number. Then, the resulting number is divided by the number of eyes that prevail on the tubers selected for planting. The response received is considered an indicator of the rate of planting potatoes per one hundredth.
The planting rate depends on the quality of the planting material and the composition of the soil, variety, level of agricultural practices. For example, for the northern regions, where the soil is rarely found in black soil, the planting density is approximately 50 thousand bushes per 1 ha. For the central regions - 45-50 thousand
Planting potatoes in a barrel - a way for a small area
An old plastic, metal or wooden barrel, a wicker structure made of wood or metal, old car tires stacked on top of each other, a basket more than 30 cm high, and a metal mesh wrapped in straw - all these containers can be used for growing potatoes.
The tank can be installed in any unsuitable area where even weeds do not want to grow. It is only important that there is enough light.
For example, consider how to grow potatoes in an old metal barrel.
The barrel should be without a bottom, so that excess moisture goes into the ground. Before you pour soil into it, inside it must be thoroughly washed with boiling water and soda, and on the outside, paint the dark surface with a light paint. Then the earth in the barrel will not overheat.
Now every 10-15 cm on the surface of the barrel you need to drill holes with a diameter of 1 cm so that the soil in it is saturated with oxygen. And it is also advisable to make the barrel detachable so that it is convenient to harvest in the fall.
With a barrel sorted out. It remains to decide how to evenly water the plant. This is very important, since drying is unacceptable, it will immediately affect the yield and our work will be wasted.
For watering we use an ordinary hose. From one end of the hose we make a plug and on the part that will be in the barrel, we make cuts every 20 cm, through them we will supply water for irrigation or air for ventilation. Lower the hose vertically into the barrel, leave one end outside. If the length of the hose allows, you can also lay it in a barrel in a spiral.
The soil in which we will plant the tubers must be steamed or calcined beforehand. So we get rid of dangerous bacteria or pests.
Now you can start landing. We mix the earth with compost in equal proportions and fill the bottom by 10-15 cm. Then, around the circumference, after 20 cm from each other, we lay out the already sprouted potatoes. Again, we fall asleep on top of 10 cm.
Once the sprouts have reached a height of 2-3 cm, sprinkle them again on 10 cm with a mixture of earth and compost. And so we repeat several times until the earth in the barrel rises 1 meter.
Weeding and hilling are not required. It remains only to monitor the soil moisture to prevent drying out.
Those gardeners who can only envy the happy owners of old barrels quickly orientated themselves and improved this method.
What to do if the earth has not warmed up?
In the middle lane, potatoes begin to be planted already in late April, early May. You can warm the soil yourself:
- In spring, the beds are marked and covered with a film of light color.
- To accelerate the melting of snow, you can scatter coal dust, which will attract the sun's rays.
- All beds can be raised by 5–7 cm. In this case, the beds dry out faster.
- Ecological and economical way of warming the soil is considered compost. Compost warms and nourishes the soil with useful trace elements.
If the earth is not warmed up, the seed material can freeze, rot and then the crop will definitely not be.
How to plant potatoes in a bag - step by step instructions
For growing potatoes, you can use ordinary plastic bags, for example, from sugar, instead of barrels. Place them in any well-lit place in the garden, even if the land is trodden there and unsuitable for growing anything.
Bags purchased, what now needs to be done?
- Half-fold the bags.
- At the bottom, pour up to 40 cm a mixture of earth, humus and peat.
- Put 5-6 tubers and cover with earth.
- To water.
- Put another 5-6 tubers and cover them with 15 cm of humus.
- After emergence (after 2-3 weeks), cover them with humus.
- Wait for the entrances again and fall asleep again.
- Repeat the procedure until the bag is 2/3 full.
- Water regularly, avoiding drying out.
- When the potato begins to bloom, part of the buds must be plucked so that they do not waste nutrients.
Harvest ripened when the tops begin to dry.
Of course, growing potatoes in bags is beneficial, since in addition to saving space, time is also saved. No need to weed, spud and fight with various pests (Colorado potato beetle, bear).
As a disadvantage, it is necessary to use a large amount of humus and constantly need to monitor the soil moisture in the bags.
The inexhaustible craving for the experiments of our gardeners can only be envied. For barrels, they came up with barrels and bags. And if there are huge fields, but few workers? For this case, there is also a solution.
It's landing time
Any of the selected schemes for planting potatoes involves marking on the land.
Potatoes can be planted in the usual way under a shovel. Dig the soil back in the fall and it is advisable to fertilize. In the spring, it will only remain to level the site and loosen large clods of earth.
Potatoes are planted in early May. By this time, the earth is warming up quite well. На подготовленном земельном участке делают ряды на расстоянии 70 см. В каждом ряду лопатой делают неглубокие ямы (около 10 см) и сажают по одному картофелю ростком вверх. Сверху посадочного материала полезно будет насыпать компост и древесную золу. Землей со следующей выкопанной ямы закапывают предыдущий картофель.The distance between planted tubers is about 30 cm.
Can be planted in pre-prepared furrows. Dig a furrow with a width of about 19 cm and a depth of up to 14 cm. Then the tubers are distributed at a distance of 30 cm and slightly covered with soil. As potato tops grow, land is added and a mound is formed around each bush.
The Dutch way of planting potatoes involves making ridges up to 36 cm high. The distance between the ridges is about 70 cm. Dig holes and distribute the tuber.
On average, the rate of sowing potatoes per one hundred parts is about 3-4 buckets of seed material, which is about 30-35 kg.
Square - nest landing method
A square-nest planting method was invented for mechanized processing of fields.
The plot is divided into squares using a cord stretched between two pegs and a marker. The side of the square is 70-90 cm, depending on the parameters of the technique.
In the places designated by the marker, make a hole-nest with a depth of 6-8 cm, add fertilizer there and spread the tuber. You can also lay out 2 potatoes at a distance of 10-15 cm from each other. Then the nest is covered with earth.
This landing allows the tractor with the cultivator to pass along and across the field without damaging the plants.
You can use the square-nesting method of planting in your area and carry out manual processing.
Its advantage is that less potatoes are required for planting, the bushes are evenly lit and do not interfere with each other. As a result, the yield is 10-15% higher than if they were planted in the usual way “under the shovel”.
And at the same time, moisture with this method evaporates faster and requires additional watering, especially in dry times. Plus, you have to fight weeds and spud.
Having examined from all sides the topic of how to plant potatoes so that there is a good harvest, what did we find out?
- There is a time-tested method of planting "under the shovel", which gives a sufficient harvest, but requires the allocation of certain areas.
- There are unusual ways of planting potatoes that are convenient to use in small areas. However, gardeners do not have an unequivocal opinion about the yield of these methods: someone is satisfied with the harvest, someone believes that “the game is not worth the candle.”
Choose the method that best meets your expectations and opportunities. If you liked the article, share it with your friends.
How and when to plant better?
Potatoes can be planted not only in spring. Summer planting of potatoes can be done in two main ways. The first one is planting vegetables with tubers from last year (so that the tubers do not sprout ahead of time, they are placed in a cold place). But you can use freshly dug tubers.
A special way has been invented for the lazy. Using this method of planting potatoes, you can harvest a good crop. Land for planting vegetables is practically not dug. They begin to plant in early May, it is better to take early varieties. Compost is poured into the cooked rows (layer thickness of about 5 cm), tubers are placed and covered with earth.
As soon as the shoots appear, carry out the hilling, during which the sprouts are again covered with soil. This will warn against frost. The second hilling is carried out when the bush reaches 20 cm. It is recommended to cover the soil with a layer of straw.
How to cut tubers for planting?
From the shares of potato tubers you can grow a full-fledged crop, rich in nutrients. Potato yields will be no different from a whole planted tuber. No matter what size it will be, the main thing is that there should be a kidney on it. Ideally, there should be two.
The only disadvantage of planting cut potatoes is considered to be a high susceptibility to decay during rainy weather. To prevent this, cuts can be treated with wood ash.
Cutting planting crops is best done in advance. About 5 days before planting in the ground. You need to store it with a cut-up place in a warm room. During this time, the place will become weathered and coarse, and the buds will begin to sprout.
The work will take a lot of manual labor, but if you have to plant a couple of buckets, then you can try.
With any method of growing potatoes, you must follow all the recommendations. At what distance do you need to plant potatoes depends on the method of cultivation. Most often, the distance should not be less than 70 cm. Planting material is laid out in a row every 30 cm.
A new method is to smoothly plant potatoes under the film. The place that is reserved for planting a vegetable is dug up, fertilized in the fall and covered with a black film. At a distance of 30 cm, holes are made in the film into which planting material is laid. There is no need for weeding from weeds, there is no need to spud and water too often.
A smooth fit has similar rules to the shovel method. The only difference is that the rows are made even with the help of marking (pegs and twine will help). The potatoes are laid out in the holes and covered with earth.
A widespread method of growing potatoes on the beds of trapeziums. Tubers are planted in two rows on the crest, arranged in a checkerboard pattern. As the bushes grow, 2-3 hills are carried out.
The optimal time for planting potatoes in the ground is end of April or beginning of May. It is impossible to do such an action before this time, because culture can simply disappear in cold land. If the climate in your territory is cool, then you should wait until the earth warms up at least 10 degrees.
How to plant in the spring - a step-by-step process
To plant potatoes correctly, follow the step-by-step instructions:
- Weeks before landing should keep the tubers warmthen cover the drawers with some translucent material and leave in a cool, bright place. When in spring they release green sprouts, then it is time to plant them in the ground.
- Disinfection with boric acid or manure.
- Preparing the soil for planting.
- Planting potatoes.
- Creating the optimal regime for growth.
Is it possible to plant potatoes in cold ground
Potatoes cannot be planted in cold ground, because it can simply freeze in such weather and you will lose the entire crop, it’s worth the time.
If you hurry up and still take such a step, you need to pay special attention to warming up and ensuring good living conditions to get a crop.
Which to use - large or small
Small tubers are called weight samples. up to 30 gramsmedium - 30-80 grand large - more than 80 gr.
There are only 2 of the best planting methods:
- Plant small tubers, but throw immediately into the planting hole a few pieces.
- Plant cut from large tubers. But at such objects should be present at least three eyes.
Is it possible to plant fresh tubers
If someone believes that this method is unacceptable, then he is very mistaken. The use of fresh potatoes during re-planting allows you to improve the crop several times and rid owners of problems with storing seed material until the spring.
This method is best used for those countries in which the period without frost is 180 days. This is observed in Odessa, Kherson, Poltava and other cities. For Irkutsk, this method will not work.
A distinctive feature of this type of landing is that a new crop will emerge slowly.
Potatoes should be planted only when frosts pass and air temperature rises up to 14-16 degrees. The earth should warm up at this time up to 10 degrees.
There is a popular sign, according to which, the root crop should be planted after the leaves become the size of a coin on a birch.
Potatoes can only be planted when the frost has passed
It can be applied in 2 ways:
- Fertilizing the land before the winter. It is applied in the amount of 10 kg per 1 square meter.
- Fertilizer per well. When planting occurs, after laying the tuber, sprinkle it with manure.
Walk-behind tractor or shovel
Potatoes can be planted in 2 ways:
- Manually using a shovel. Among the advantages of this technology, simplicity can be distinguished: one person simply digs a deep hole, and the second throws tubers and fertilizer. When the second completes the sowing, the first falls asleep the finished hole. After the process is completed, the ground is leveled with a rake, which allows water to remain in the ground.
- With a walk-behind tractor. The advantage of this method can be noted the speed and low cost of manual effort. The process begins with cutting the furrows, after which the sprouted seeds are thrown there. After this, the wells can be dug manually or using a cultivator.
What are siderates and what are they for?
What gives such a reception?
- Soil enrichment with nitrogen, which makes up some part in plant nutrition.
- Loosening the soil and improving the structure.
- The elimination of erosion.
- Enrichment of the earth nutrients and organic matter.
- Decreased weed growth.
- Pest and disease elimination.
- Earth overheating protection.
Tuber growing and soil preparation
To grow potatoes, tubers should be sprouted. 2 weekswhile removing white sprouts. You need to lay out the material for landing with a thin layer on the floor in a bright place. Readiness can be determined by the presence of green sprouts on the potato, but without additional spots.
If we talk about the detailed preparation of the soil, then it is worth starting with its fertilizer even before the onset of winter. When it is time to land, you should ensure necessary moisture and soil loosening. Digging should be replaced by bayonetting using forks. This allows the earth to be enriched with oxygen.
Features of growing in the country
If you have your own cottage, then when growing potatoes, first choose its variety.
After all, someone prefers a root crop with yellow friable pulp, and someone with white. After that you need decide on the method of growing, which now there are a large number. But do not forget about fertilizing the soil.
Hilling potatoes should be done after the plant rises 10 cm above the ground. This will allow using rooting to provide root crops with protection against frost. And after the potato grows up to 40 cm, you need to fully fill the beds, well filling the aisle with earth.
Very often, leaves, twigs or hay - organic materials can be added to the bedding mixture. This will allow you to retain moisture in the earth longer, and also prevent weeds from germinating for a long time.
Watering and care
It should be 2-3 times, if the summer is very hot, but if vice versa, then 1 time is enough. But weeds need to be removed more often, as well as monitor Colorado beetles.
You must first harvest after 60 days after planting potatoes, but the main part should wait until the tops are completely dried.
It is only necessary to remove the finished culture with a pitchfork so as not to damage the mounds. You can grow crops in one place only 4 years, after which you need to give the land rest and move the plant to another place.
How to grow in a "two-crop" way
In many southern countries, gardeners use any method to grow as many crops as possible each year. And so today a method of growing potatoes has already been developed Twice a year, given that only precocious varieties are used.
The features of the method are:
- Good potato samples need to be washed and cut, after which stand in a special solution for an hour and a half.
- Germinate the culture for 10 days in the garden, covering it with a small layer of soil.
- After this, July 10, you need to land the finished material in the ground and wait for the harvest.
Growing potatoes is a simple process, if you follow a few basic rules:
- Compliance with the process of preparing material for planting and soil.
- Creating an enabling environment for germination.
- Plant nutrition.
If you follow all the above rules, you can achieve a good result even with a minimum of effort.