Gradually, step by step, the novice rider improves his skills. The first stage of teaching the difficult art of riding (making contact, developing the right fit, using controls and impact) is completed, now we move on to another, no less interesting and important stage - trotting.
I must say that a characteristic feature of trotting is shaking. Its occurrence is due to the fact that the horse alternately jumps from one diagonal pair of legs to another. Depending on the anatomical parameters of the horse, the force of the tremors and the speed of movement change. No matter how you try to eliminate the shaking, it is impossible when trotting! However, shaking strength can be reduced by at least half.
When trotting, it’s easy to catch the horse’s rhythm and pace. To adapt to it you need to feel this rhythm. To do this, the inner part of the thighs must rest against the saddle, and the feet against the stirrups, while the body (from the lower back) should be tilted slightly forward. Pull up in the saddle after a time - "sat down - got up" (that is, let every second push), making the main emphasis on your knees or due to the strengthening of the sluice. Thus, the rider is in limbo.
These simple movements are called “lite trot”. In the case when you can control your movements: use the previous push as an impulse to the subsequent movement - getting up, and when landing do not flop, but smoothly and gently, slowing your hips down to the saddle, you will reduce the shaking by half. Thus, during several trainings you will achieve good results when moving lightweight trot. Professional riders recommend using the palm rest in the saddle in the first training sessions with a lightweight trot.
The evidence of the mastery of mastering the movement with a lightweight trot is the ability to ride without rest with the hands in the saddle (that is, hands on the belt, sideways or upwards) and maintaining the correct fit throughout the journey. Then you can go on to control the occasion when trotting.
Most often, when riding in the arena in order to fix the correct landing, the following movement at the step is used - the training lynx. In order to learn how to move with a training trot, first of all, it is necessary to master the skills of facilitated movement. Training trot is also characterized by increased shaking.
The training lynx is based on movement in the saddle without gaps, that is, you are as tightly "pressed" into the saddle so as not to lift out of it. To achieve such a strong position in the saddle, you can use the maximum tension of the calf muscles and the body that is slightly folded back. That is, your legs are firmly pressed to the sides of the horse, and a soft loin compensates for tremors, restrains movements that can knock you out of the saddle. As soon as you easily and confidently sit in the saddle due to the strength of your legs, without using stirrups, you can be considered a capable rider. Training should take place until you perfect all movements to perfection.
So, after you have successfully completed these exercises, you can safely move on to other, more complex gaits.
Types of movements
How do these animals move? Each horse gait has its own characteristics, and it is worth sitting in the saddle, how it feels. The movements are separated by a step, a horse trot, its gallop, amble. There are some other types of movements, but they are specially developed, as a rule, in riding schools and are suitable for sports such as dressage.
This is the slowest movement when the animal is calm - no one drives him, moves in steps. What is this step? This is a successive rearrangement of the horse of her limbs. The step phase does not involve jumping. Thus, the horse rests on the ground all the time.
The step is divided into 4 types:
- Short. When moving, the hind legs of the animal are far behind the front. This kind of step is also called assembled.
- Average. When traces of the hind legs are found on the traces of the front.
- Wide. Such a step only happens in well-trained and plastic horses. Hind hooves stand up for the front footprints.
This is the fastest gait. The horse is able to move at speeds up to 60 km / h. The average speed reached by animals at this step is 15-18 km / h.
This is a three-stroke movement used in long and short distances. In the case when it comes to equestrian sport. What are the types of gallop? What about horse trot species? Will we talk about the latter? Required. Below you can read such information. In the meantime, back to the gallop.
- Manezhnaya - the most difficult for the animal. He has to move quite slowly, often unfolding at the same time.
- Assembled. The horse, as in the previous version, cannot move fast. Therefore, he is not comfortable. The animal is not able to reveal its movement with all its power.
- Average. More or less relative in speed movement, therefore, is called that. This kind of gallop is necessary when you have to move for quite a long time and at great distances.
- Field (swing or added). This pace of gait refers to the warm-up movement. The animal moves freely, without tension and relatively leisurely.
- Career. The fastest gallop and the most tiresome for a horse. It is used at short distances, as a rule. There is another species that is sometimes isolated in a separate one - this is a jump. A horse gallops while running an obstacle course.
No matter how strange it may sound, but a gallop is considered the easiest to perform for both the horse and the rider.
The name is beautiful, and the gait itself is very similar to a trot horse. Differs in rearrangement of legs during the movement. If on a lynx a horse rearranges its legs in pairs and diagonally, then in this case there is a rearrangement on one side.
This type of movement is faster than trotting, but also more dangerous. Only suitable for straight and even distances. The animal is able to stumble when moving amble, "do not fit into the rotation," and thereby inflict great harm on himself and his rider.
So we came close to the most complex and beautiful movement of a noble animal. When a horse trots, it looks just great. Together with beauty, this gait is the most difficult for the rider. It is necessary to observe the landing in the saddle exactly, and when jumping from its rider, dexterity is required in order to stay in the saddle.
As for the speed of the horse in trot, then everything depends on the type of similar gait. Consider them in more detail.
Horse lynx, as mentioned above, is divided into several types:
Four obscure words that we will now decipher.
In another way it is called a collected or shortened horse trot. The step length is 2 meters, the average speed is 13-15 km / h.
What is a trot? This is the slowest type of lynx. It is called shortened due to the small length of the step and the almost complete absence of the jump phase. Trot is most optimal when training trotters.
Or a sweeping lynx. They say about her: "The horse is trotting." The setting of the hind legs of the animal occurs in front of the tracks of the front. The step length reaches 6 meters. At short distances, the speed of a horse with such movement can reach 60 km / h.
Its main difference is a long movement. Mach requires the horse and rider clarity and accuracy. It is quite fast: a horse trotting this type reaches 30 km / h. Suitable for long distances.
She is a field, normal and regular horse trot. At a speed of 20 km / h, the stride length can reach 2.2 meters. The pronounced phase of the jump or unsupported movement.
Speaking about all these types of gait, it is necessary to note their main difference - this is the shaking of the rider. The fact is that the nature of the movement is such that this shaking simply cannot be ruled out. But it can be reduced. It's all about the correct landing of the rider.
There are two types of trot landing: training and light.
How to trot a horse? This is not easy, in addition, a similar type of gait is the most difficult for the rider. And in order to fix the rider's correct landing, there is a training lynx.
What is meant by this right fit? Maximum tightness of the rider to the saddle. The rider should not lift in it. Achieving such a landing is extremely difficult, especially for a beginner. It requires maximum work on the inner thighs. They strain as much as possible, and the body slightly leans back. When training trot involved the rider's legs.
Before embarking on a training trot, you need to learn lite. What does she give? The ability to adapt to the trot of a horse. You must be able to catch the rhythm and pace of your horse. In order to adjust to the pace, the rider rests on the saddle with the inside of his thighs. The feet are pressed against the stirrups, the body is as straight and extended as possible.
At every second push, the rider rises in the saddle using his own pelvis. That is, there is a push of the pelvis forward and upward, while the knees abut the saddle, and the inside of the thighs is strained to the limit. The rider descends smoothly into the saddle, braking his hips. Roughly falling into the saddle, then there is a high probability of damage to the horse’s back.
Experienced riders are able to ride a horse trotting without stopping their feet in stirrups. At the same time, their hands are on the belt or behind the back, and the correct fit is maintained throughout the path.
Tips for beginners
For those who have just decided to sit in the saddle, it is not superfluous to know the following:
- You should go on horseback riding in trousers or leggings, ideally seamless. Jeans can wipe your own hips into the blood. As for shoes, these can be boots with a special low and wide heel. By the type of jockey. However, few people wear such shoes these days. Therefore, in the warm season, sneakers are quite suitable.
- Carrying a carrot, an apple or a piece of brown bread is not forbidden. Why not treat the horse after the ride, not thank her thereby?
- No need to take a first time walk for 2 hours or more. Believe me, one hour will be enough to ensure that the next day there is an unpleasant sensation in the hips.
- If the walk should be a field trip - to the forest or field, then you should warn the guide that you are a beginner and sit in the saddle for the first time in your life.
- For the first acquaintance with the horse, a lesson in the arena is suitable.
- Do not try to practice what you read or see in the films, barely sitting in the saddle. In other words, you need to start with a step. Lynx and gallop - not for a beginner.
- The horse is alive, and it can be uncomfortable and painful. This must not be forgotten by spurring the animal or pulling on an occasion. Everything should be in moderation, we are not skiers, and the reason is not ski poles to swing them.
The benefits of riding
Horseback riding is good for people of any age. Doctors recommend horse riding to those who suffer from diseases of the respiratory and nervous systems, as well as people who have had a heart attack. Consider how horseback riding affects the body:
- tones all muscle groups,
- improves posture
- trains the vestibular apparatus
- improves blood circulation,
- relieves stress and tension, relieves depression,
- develops self-confidence.
Attention! It is contraindicated to engage in horse riding with exacerbation of chronic diseases, with allergies to horse dander, asthma. Children under 14 years old must bring a certificate from the pediatrician to the instructor that the state of health allows you to engage in equestrian sports.
At what age can you learn to ride?
Everyone can learn to ride, regardless of age. Children quickly learn horse riding skills, as practice shows. You can start practicing the child from 5-6 years. There are no age restrictions for adults. Even older people can try amateur sports. Horseback riding will have a beneficial effect on the psychological and physical condition.
Horse riding will give a lot of pleasant sensations if the training is conducted under the guidance of an experienced instructor, because beginners have a lot to learn:
- how to get to know a horse
- what equipment will be needed
- how to sit down and get up from the animal,
- how to manage it.
First you have to learn the theory, and then practice riding. Difficulties will not arise if a good mentor is nearby.
Equipment for classes
A novice rider will need special riding clothing. She should not constrain movements. Jeans or pants, a comfortable vest are suitable. Training shoes are chosen on a flat sole in order to minimize the risk of becoming entangled in the stirrup. An important element of protection is a helmet; without it, beginners cannot ride a horse.
Equipment for the animal does not need to be purchased, it is usually available at the equestrian club. It includes items:
- gel or fur trap
Attention! Experienced riders can ride without a saddle, but for a beginner it can be dangerous. Riding a saddle horse requires good preparation.
The first stage of training is getting to know the animal
The horses kept in equestrian clubs are not inclined to show aggression, they are loyal to new riders. If you learn to ride a horse on a horse that belongs to a familiar person, it is important that the owner of the horse is present in the first lessons. You can locate an animal by caressing it, stroking its neck. You need to talk with the horse in a pleasant voice.
Attention! If the horse's ears are turned back, then it is tense. You cannot saddle a horse until she relaxes, and her degree of trust in a stranger does not increase.
Dainty will help make friends with animals. Offer the horse carrots, a slice of melon, bread or some special food if instructor permits.
How to sit on a horse and move off?
Climbing a horse for the first time is not easy; experience is needed. Experienced riders know that there are no nerve endings in the withers area, so they grab the mane with their right hand without fear, helping themselves to rise. The instruction will help to sit correctly:
- go to the animal on the left
- put your left foot in the stirrup,
- grab the mane at the withers,
- push your right foot off the ground, lifting the body,
- Throw the right leg over the back of the mount and insert it into the stirrup.
The first thing that a beginner masters is walking a horse in steps. In order for the animal to move, the rider moves forward slightly with the body and squeezes the horse’s body with both legs. The pet will accelerate if the rider rhythmically hits him on both sides with his feet.
How to stay in the saddle?
Climbing into the saddle, the rider must take the correct position. Keep your back straight, trying not to shift the center of gravity. Correct fit implies complete relaxation of the muscles, the posture should be natural. The hips are clearly in the recess of the saddle.
It is important to learn to maintain balance, as if repeating the movements of the horse. The ability to balance comes with experience, so training is carried out only on calm and balanced pets. The rider keeps in the saddle thanks to the muscles on the inside of the hips, but this does not mean that he is constantly tensed. When a feeling of confidence comes, the rider controls the body unconsciously.
How to make turns?
Experienced riders control the horse with the help of light movements of their body. A beginner will first have to master the basics of this science. Reason is the main tool by which a person gives the animal the necessary commands. With it, you can stop the mount and change the trajectory of movement.
By creating a reins tension, the rider achieves a slowdown or turns. To turn the horse to the left on the go, the rider slightly pulls the halter on the left side, and on the right - weakens. At the same time, the right leg is pressed against the body of the animal behind the cinch, as if pushing it in the right direction. The same actions apply when turning right, only in mirror image.
Attention! During the rotation, the body is held straight. A shift in the center of gravity can cause it to fall out of the saddle.
How to stop and get off the horse?
Pulling the reins with force, a man hurts a horse. To stop, it is not necessary to resort to such a technique. Follow the instructions:
- holding the reins in your hands, tilt the case back, shifting the center of gravity,
- squeeze your horse with your hips
- pull the reins slightly toward you, letting the animal know that you need to stop.
Getting down from the horse is simple - remove your right leg from the stapes, throw it, holding on to the mane at the withers, lower yourself to the ground, and then free your left leg.
How to get down from a horse
Keeping distance and driving safe
The basis for safe riding is maintaining your distance. 3-4 meters should remain between horses moving one after another. Animals must not be allowed to be too close to each other. It is impossible to predict their behavior - some individuals may be frightened and show aggression.
Attention! Наездники, движущиеся навстречу друг другу, всегда разъезжаются левым плечом.
Во время езды верхом животное может повести себя неестественно, понести или взбрыкнуть. It happens that the horse stumbles and falls with the rider. In such a situation, one cannot panic. If a fall is inevitable, you need to try to relax and fall to one side, after which immediately roll in the opposite direction from the horse. This will help avoid hoof blows.
Attention! After a fall, it is important to ensure that there are no serious injuries. After you need to inspect the horse.
Common Riding Errors
Inexperienced riders often make mistakes while learning to ride. The most common are:
- Fear and tension. Horseback riding is a pleasant process. You need to relax and calm down, because if the animal feels the rider’s insecurity, it can gallop.
- Riding without equipment and gear. Riding without a helmet is unacceptable, it can cost the life of an inexperienced rider.
- Winding reins on hands. This is very dangerous - if the horse suddenly suffers, you can break your arms, and falling out of the saddle, hang and fall under the hooves.
Types of gait
A beginner needs to master several types of horse movement:
In the first lessons, they learn to walk in steps. This is the slowest, and therefore the safest way to travel. For the horse to go, just pat it lightly in the hips. The remaining types of gaits master gradually, since they suggest a higher speed of movement. A lynx is faster than a step, and a gallop is the fastest run. Only experienced riders can practice it.
Everyone can learn to ride, but this requires practice. Regularly attending training sessions, the beginner will gradually hone his skills, learn how to feel the horse and manage it.